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BY   THE   REV.   JOHN    CAMPBELL,    M.  A.,   TORONTO. 

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The  student  of  Biblical  History  cannot  fail  to  notice  the  remark- 
able prominence  given  to  one  supposed  Canaanitish  people  over  all 
others  mentioned  in  the  Pentateuch.  This  is  the  tribe  of  the 
Horites,  who  dwelt  in  their  mount  Seir.  The  first  mention  of  this 
family  is  in  Genesis  xiv.  6,  where  they  are  numbered  among  the 
peoples  defeated  by  Ohedorlaomer  and  his  associates.  In  Deuteronomy 
ii.  12,  22,  they  are  again  spoken  of  as  the  ancient  possessors  of  the 
land  occupied  by  the  descendants  of  Esau.  Bishop  Patrick  supposed 
that  the  Horites  had  dwelt  in  that  region  since  the  days  of  the 
Deluge,  although  he  did  not  suggest  a  line  of  Noah's  descendants 
with  whom  they  might  have  been  connected.'  In  Genesis  xxxvi.  a 
singularly  minute  and  full  account  is  given  of  the  families  of  this 
people,  the  only  apparent  reason  for  it  being  that  Esau  and  his  son 
Eliphaz  married  women  of  their  race,  and  that  the  Edomites  dwelt 
with  them  in  the  land  of  Seii*.  The  genealogies  of  the  Horites  there 
given  are  as  follow  : 

"  These  are  the  sons  of  Seir  the  Horite,  who  inhabited  the  land  ; 
Lotan,  and  Shobal,  and  Zibeon,  and  Anah,  and  Dishon,  and  Ezer,  and 
Dishan :  these  are  the  dukes  of  the  Horites,  the  children  of  Seir,  in 
the  land  of  Edom.  And  the  children  of  Lotan  were  Hori  and 
Homam;  and  Lotan's  sister  was  Timna.  And  the  children  of 
Shobal  were  these ;  Alvan,  and  Manahath,  and  Ebal,  Shepho  and 
Onam.  And  these  are  the  childi-en  of  Zibeon ;  both  Ajah,  and 
Anah  :  this  was  that  Anah  that  found  the  mules  in  the  wilderness, 
as  he  fed  the  asses  of  Zibeon  his  father.  And  the  children  of  Anah 
were  these ;  Dishon,  and  Aholibamah  the  daughter  of  Anah.  And 
these  are  the  children  of  Dishon ;  Hemdan,  and  Eshban,  and  Ithran, 
and  Cheran.  The  children  of  Ezar  are  these ;  Bilhan,  and  Zitavan, 
and  Akan.  The  children  of  Dishan  are  these ;  Uz,  and  Aran. 
These  are  the  dukes  that  came  of  the  Horites ;  duke  Lotan,  duke 
Shobal,  duke  Zibeon,  duke  Anah,  duke  Dishon,  duke  Ezar,  duke 

>  Commentary  on  Oonesis.    Ch.  xxxvi. 

Dislmn  :  these  are  tlie  ilnkes  that  came  of  Hori,  among  their  dukes 
in  the  land  of  Seir."  («nnesis  xxxvi.  20-30.  Amonj^  these  wo  find 
that  Anah,  the  father  of  Aholibamah,  is  (Gen.  xxxvi.  2)  tlie  son  of 
Zibeon ;  it  is,  therefore,  probable  that  Dislion,  the  father  of  Henidan, 
&c.,  may  be  the  son  of  Anah.  This  woidd  reduce  the  num})er  of 
lines  to  five.  If,  however,  Timna,  the  concubine  of  Eliphaz,  the  son 
of  Esau  (Gen.  xxxvi.  12),  be  the  same  as  Timna,  the  sister  of  Lotan, 
it  is  manifestly  impossible  to  make  Lotan  a  contemporary  of  Zibeon, 
Anah,  or  even  Dishon.  Zibeon  must  have  lived  about  the  time  of 
Abraham  ;  and  Shobal,  Ezar  and  Dishon,  if  they  are  his  brethren,  at 
the  same  period.  The  importance  of  this  Horite  line  may  be  judged 
from  the  fact  of  its  reappearance  in  the  first  chapter  of  the  first  book 
of  Chronicles,  where  the  above  genealogy  Ls  given  with  some  slight 
variations  in  the  orthogi-aphy  of  the  individual  names. 

It  is,  to  say  the  least,  remarkable  that  a  genealogy  connecting  with 
the  family  of  Abraham  in  a  way  comparatively  unimportant  should 
be  given  at  such  length.  Esau  had  other  wives,  Hittites,  of  Elon 
and  Beeri,  yet  nothing  appears  concerning  their  families  but  the 
names  of  their  fathei-s.  Now  the  Hittites  were  a  powerful  people 
even  at  the  time  of  Esau,  and  waged  successful  wars  with  many  of 
the  Pharaohs  in  later  years.  True,  we  find  a  brief  account  (Gen, 
xxii.  20)  of  the  immediate  descendants  of  Nahor,  the  brother  of 
Abraham,  from  whose  family  came  the  wife  of  Isaac  and  the  two 
wives  of  Jacob ;  but  this  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  seeing  that  these 
were  so  intimately  connected  with  the  great  patriarch  himself.  The 
sons  of  Abraham  by  Keturah,  the  children  of  Ishmael,  and  those  of 
Esau,  are,  as  we  might  expect,  named,  in  some  cases,  with  their 
grandsons.  But  nothing  is  recorded  of  the  families  to  which  Hagar, 
or  Keturah  belonged ;  the  name  of  Ishmael's  wife  is  not  even 
mentioned  ;  and  no  genealogy  enlightens  us  in  regai-d  to  the  connec- 
tions formed  by  the  heads  of  the  Twelve  Tribes.  A  simple  mention 
of  the  immediate  progenitors  of  Aholibamah  would  not  have  been 
matter  of  great  surprise ;  but  this  long  Horite  genealogy  certainly 
ought  to  be  so  with  every  serious  student  of  the  Mosaic  record. 

Still  more  extraordinary  should  this  list  appear,  if,  as  almost  all 
writers  who  have  treated  of  them  suppose,  the  Horites  were  an 
obscure  race  of  uncivilized  troglodytes,  whom  the  Edomites  without 
much  difficulty  extirpated.  Strange  that  the  great  lines  of  Egypt 
and  Assyria  should  pass  without  notice ;  that  the  powerful  families 

of  Moab  and  Amnion  aliould  have  no  record  ;  that  Islimael's  grahd- 
Hons  do  not  appoar  ;  and  those  miserable  cave-dwellers  have  so  much 
of  Scripture  allotted  to  them  !  Whatever  view  wo  may  be  inclined 
to  take  of  the  books  of  Moses,  whether  we  regard  them  as  an 
inspired  production,  or  the  work  of  a  man  wise  beyond  all  his  fellows, 
the  problem  remains  the  same.  What  ia  the  Divine  purpose  in 
giving  such  a  genealogy  1  or  what  was  the  end  of  the  historian  in 
placing  it  on  record  'i 

An  objection  naturally  urged  against  the  attempt  to  answer  such  a 
question  is,  that  neither  sacred  nor  profane  history  gives  us  any 
more  information  regarding  the  Horites.  This  I  deny  ;  for  I  profess 
to  have  opened  the  door  at  which  many  have  knocked  in  vain,  and 
from  induction  of  facts  historical,  mythological,  philological,  and 
geogi*aphical,  to  be  sible  to  prove  the  truth  of  the  following  six 
propositions  regarding  this  ancient  people  : 

I.  That  the  Horites  were  no  obscure  troglodytes,  but  a  race  pre- 
eminently noble  and  distinguished. 

II.  That  they  have  left  distinct  geographical  traces  in  and  about 
Palestine,  which  find  their  counterparts  in  other  lands. 

III.  That  one  family  of  the  Horites  appears,  in  a  somewhat  dis- 
guised form,  in  the  second  and  fourth  chapters  of  the  fii-st  book  of 
Chronicles,  and  there  furnishes  the  link  of  connection  with  other 
histories  than  tLat  of  the  Bible. 

IV.  That  in  this  family  we  find  many  of  the  divinities  and  some 
of  the  earliest  rulers  of  Lower  and  Upper  Egypt. 

V.  That  from  this  family  came  the  Caplitorim,  who  invaded 
Palestine  before  the  close  of  the  wanderings  of  Israel. 

VI.  That  reminiscences  of  the  Horites,  and  confirmation  of  sJl 
the  preceding  propositions,  are  found  in  the  early  history  and 
mythology  of  Phccnicia,  Chaldea,  Arabia,  Persia,  India,  Asia  Minor, 
Greece,  Italy,  and  of  the  Celtic  and  German  peoples. 

I  proceed  at  once  to  the  proof  of  the  above  six  statements,  the 
first  two  being  simply  introductory,  and  depending  greatly  for  confir- 
mation upon  the  establishment  of  the  tliii-d  and  following  projjositions, 

I. — The  Horites  were  no  obscure  troglodytes,  but  a  race 


"Wo  liavo  nlrcady  Keen  tlmt  some  of  tlie  heads  of  tribes  or  dukes  of 
this  nico  were  eunteinjionuifH  of  Abralinin.  Their  aiu-ostor  Scir,  and 
that  other  ancestor  Jlori,  mentioned  in  (ien.  xxxvi.  30,  who  cannot 
be  the  son  of  Lutan,  take  iis  liack  to  an  ohlor  i)eriod  stilL  In  Abra- 
ham's time  they  were  of  sufficient  importance  to  attract  the  attention 
of  Chedorlaomer,  and  dwelt  at  no  gi-eat  distance  from  the  cities  of 
the  [)lain,  "  tlie  opuh'nt  Pentajwlis  of  tlie  Jordan."  They  are  chiBsed 
witli  the  Ropliaim,  the  Zuzim,  the  Emim  and  tJie  Avim,  wliom  there 
is  strong  i-eason  for  making  Jaj)lietic  peoples  connecting  with 
Riphath,  Javan,  &c.,  more  especially  as  their  names  do  not  occur 
among  the  tribes  of  Ham.  They  represent  a  second  wave  of  popu- 
lation moving  westward  from  Babel,  the  first  being  a  purely  Hamitio 
stock  that  liad  passed  over  Jordan  and  probably  into  Egypt,  in  both 
of  which  regions  they  soon  became  tLo  serfs  of  a  nobler  race.  The 
Shemites,  with  the  exception  of  Abraham  and  his  family,  still  kept 
to  their  ancient  seat.  Esau,  a  proud  and  warlike  man,  was  not 
ashamed  to  ally  himself  with  a  Horite  princess.  He  seems,  indeed, 
to  have  entered  upon  this  alliance  on  unequal  terms,  inasmuch  as 
certain  of  the  dukes  of  Esau  (Gen.  xxxvi.  40),  Timnah,  Alvah, 
Aholibamah,  bear  Horite  names,  while  no  Horite  duke  bears  the 
name  of  an  Edomite.  It  is  also  to  be  noted  that  two  of  these  are 
the  names  of  females,  although  they  stand  at  the  head  of  the  list  of 
the  Aluphim  or  dukes.  In  ancient  times  for  a  woman  to  give  her 
name  to  a  family  was  a  mark  of  high  honour,  and  such,  undoubtedly, 
was  the  position  that  the  Horite  element  occupied  in  the  Edomite 
family.  Obadiah  iii.  is  often  quoted  as  a  passage  which  pi'oves  the 
Horites  to  have  been  troglodytes,  inasmuch  as  the  Edomites,  who 
supplanted  them,  are  there  described  as  dwelling  "  in  the  clefts  of 
the  rock ;"  but  who  will  dare  to  call  the  proud,  free  and  warlike 
Edomites  cave-dwellers  1  A  better  name  should  be  found  for  those 
whose  skill  and  marvellous  industry  fashioned  the  palaces  of  Petra, 
leaving  marks  of  a  high  civilization,  that  nothing  but  a  great  convul- 
sion of  nature  can  efface,  whether  they  be  Edomites  or  the  sons  of 
Hori.  These  troglodytes,  if  men  will  call  them  so,  were  a  great 
people.  It  is  interesting  to  observe  that  Josephus  calls  the  descen- 
dants of  Abraham  by  Keturah  by  the  same  name,  and  yet  represents 
them,  quoting  the  words  of  an  ancient  historian,  as  the  conquerors  of 
Egypt  and  founders  of  the  Assyrian  Empire.* 

<  Joiephi  Antlq.    Lib.  I.    Cap.  16. 

But,  apart  from  those  fncts,  the  primary  meaning  of  the  root  Hot 
or  Chor,  for  the  initial  letter  is  the  Helirow  Cheth,  is  not  a  cave- 
dwoller.  It  wonld  bo  Htningo  indeed  if  it  were.  Tlio  word  is  an 
adjective,  and  means  white,  pure,  and  hence  nolile.  The  interpre- 
tation troglo(li/te  is  a  conjectural  one,  derived  from  false  historical 
reasoning.  In  so  far  as  tlie  meaning  obtains  in  tlie  Hebi-ew  language, 
it  denotes  historical  corruption  of  the  original  sense,  such  as  we  find 
in  our  English  words  patjan  and  villain,  Whig  and  Tm'ij,  or,  better 
still,  in  the  word  Bohemian.  As  well  might  later  writers  pretend 
that  the  original  Bolieniians  were  a  Jiorde  of  vagabonds,  as  those  of 
the  present  day,  that  the  Horites  were  a  race  of  miserable  dwellers 
in  caves.  The  children  of  Seir,  the  Horite,  were  the  white  race  of 
their  age,  the  purest  of  all  the  Japhetic  families,  the  nobles  of  the 
world's  early  history.  Their  name  is  a  synonym  for  all  these  quali- 
ties in  many  tongues,  and  especially  in  those  of  the  Indo-European 
class.  The  Greek  heros,  a  hero,  or  demi-god,  with  Ilera  the  mistress, 
as  a  name  of  Juno,  the  German  Ilerr,  and  hence,  by  tlie  conversion 
of  the  aspirate  into  a  sibilant,  our  English  Sir,  are  a  few  of  the  later 
forms  of  this  famous  word,  which  fills  a  large  part  of  the  vocabularies 
of  many  languages.'*  It  appears  in  connection  with  the  number 
seven,  representing  the  seven  dukes  of  that  princely  family,  in  the 
seven  Ilarits,  the  bright  ones  of  Sanskrit  mythology ;  and  these,  with 
the  presei'vation  of  the  guttural  or  strongly  aspirated  Choth,  meet  us 
again  in  the  seven  Greek  Charites,  or,  without  it,  in  the  seven  Horaa 
of  the  same  theogony.  This  is  hardly  the  place  yet  to  enter  upon 
the  connection  of  the  names  of  the  individual  Horites  with  those 
which  appear  in  the  history  of  the  Indo-European  families.  Still,  I 
may  be  permitted  here  to  indicate  some  of  the  links  that  bind  the 
Scripture  genealogy  to  the  traditions  of  ancient  nations.  Lotan  is  a 
root  that  appears  in  Latona,  Latinus,  and  many  other  venerable 
names ;  nor  is  it  unworthy  of  attention  that,  as  Latona  is  the  mother 
of  Horua  Apollo,  so  Lotan's  eldest  son  bears  4ie  identical  appellation, 
Hori.  Shobal,  which  connects  with  Shibboleth,  an  ear  of  corn,  is,  as 
Hyde  unwittingly  shows,  the  Arabic  Sambula,  which  he  makes 
equivalent  to  the  Greek  SibuUa,  and  also  to  the  Latm  Spica,  meaning 
the  same  thing.'    In  Aholibamah  we  have,  I  am  assured,  the  original 

»•  Quigniaut,  Religions  de  I'Antiquit^,  iii.  833,  seq.    Fuerst  In  his  valuable  lexicon  giyen 
Phoenician  Hor  or  Clior,  the  meaning  of  which  la  nobU  aod  frte. 
*  Hjrde,  Religlo  Veterum  Fenanun,  398. 

of  the  Greek  Olympus,  in  the  Ionic  dialect  Olj^iino-:,  a  word  for 
which  IK)  derivation  can  bo  found,  and  all  the  asBociations  of  which 
a^?ree  admirably  with  the  meaning  of  the  Hebrew  term  "  tent  of  the 
high  place."  The  very  word  hamah,  Uie  high  place,  survives  in  the 
Greek  bema.  I  shall  yet  have  occasion  to  show  the  force  of  the 
following  Homeric  gloss  ujjon  the  words  of  Moses.  Speaking  of  the 
children  of  Zibeon  the  sacred  writer  says,  "  This  was  that  Anah  that 
found  the  mules  in  the  Wilderness,  as  he  fed  the  asses  of  Zibeon,  his 
father."     The  words  of  the  Greek  poet  are  :* 

"  tla^XayovttJv  S'  rfyiiro  TlvKatukvioQ  \haiov  (cf;p» 
'K£  'Svcriui/,  (i0iv  t'lfiioviov  yevoc  ayportpaiov," 

"  The  rough  heart  of  Pylaemenes  led  the  Paphlagonian 
Eneti,  whence  is  the  stock  of  wild  mules." 

II. — The  Horites  have   left  distinct  geographical   traces 


In  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Dead  Sea  I  might  mention  the 
district  long  known  as  Syria  Sobal,  which  commemorates  the  second 
of  the  Horite  dukes.**  Among  his  sons,  Manahath  gives  name  to  a 
place  sjioken  of  in  the  6th  verse  of  the  8th  chapter  of  first  Chroni- 
cles, the  site  of  which  is  unknown.  It  may  have  been  Minois, 
near  Gaza  in  Philistia,  or,  as  probably,  the  Mendesian  nome  of  Lower 
Egypt.  As  for  Ebal,  the  third  son  of  Shobal,  a  mountain  in  Central 
Palestine  bears  his  name  ;  and  the  region  of  Gebalitis  in  tlie  vicinity 
of,  or  included  in,  Syria  Sobal,  shows  the  simple  conversion  of  an 
initial  Ayin,  represented  falsely  in  our  English  version  as  an  unas- 
pirated  letter,  into  a  coiTesponding  Gimel.  The  root  Shepho  is  so 
common  a  one  that  I  hardly  dare  trust  myself  to  point  out  its 
geographical  connections.  Onam  will  be  seen  by  any  one  capable  of 
consulting  a  Hebrew  lexicon  to  be  of  the  same  root  as  that  which 
occurs  in  Ono,  a  town  of  Benjamin,  and  On,  the  celebrated  city  of 
the  Sun,  in  Egypt.  Bethana  is  the  house  of  the  god  Anah,  also 
called  Anammelcch  or  Anah  the  king.  Among  the  sons  of  Dishon, 
I  need  only  select  Eshban,  a  word  which  Gesenlus  identifies  with 

*  Homeri  Hind.  ii.  851-2.  The  same  Eneti  introduced  mules  into  Spain.  They  are  the  Anites 
descended  from  the  son  of  Zibeon. 

**  Ritter's  Comparative  Oeogi-apliy  of  Palestine,  Edin.,  ii.  134.  Keil  and  Dclitsch  (in  Gen. 
xxxvi.),  good  men  but  typical  commentator*  of  tlie  unhistorical  class,  sneer  at  the  idea  of  a 
connection  between  Syria  Sobal  and  Sliobal  tlio  Horite.  The  name  appears  indeed  in  an 
«poci]^2>h»l  book,  but  is  no  more  an  apocryphal  name  than  Gebalitis; 

Heslibon  in  Moab.*  Among  those  of  Ez«v,  Akan,  or,  as  he  is  called  in 
1  Chronicles  i.  42,  Jakan,  gives  us  the  important  family  of  the  Beni 
Joakan,  dwelling  in  Arabia  Petrtea  (Numbers  xxxiii.  31).  Of  tho 
Hons  of  Dishan,  Ua  appears  to  have  been  tho  first  or  most  important 
settlor  in  the  land  of  which  the  patriarch  Job  was  an  inliabitant. 

Dr.  Hyde  Clarke  has  already  shown  in  several  of  his  admirable 
papers,  that  the  geographical  names  of  Palestine  are  those  of  the 
world.*  The  majority  of  these  names  I  have  good  reason  to  believe 
are  eponymous.  The  Horites,  who  left  little  or  no  traces  in  Pales- 
tine, on  account  of  their  early  emigration  to  other  lands,  did  not,  on 
that  account,  suffer  their  names  to  ijerish,  but  still  "called  their 
lands  by  theii-  own  names  "  in  whatever  pai-t  of  the  world  these  were 
situated.  Latopolis  in  Egypt  and  Latium  in  Italy  represent  Lotan. 
Hori  gives  Heroopolis,  also  in  the  land  of  tlie  Pharaohs,  and  unnum- 
bered similar  designations  of  towns  in  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa. 
Shobal  ajjpears  in  the  Lydian  Sipylus  and  in  the  great  Sabellian 
family  of  Italy.  Alvan,  or,  as  he  is  called  in  1  Chron.  i.  40,  Allan, 
furnishes  the  Egyptian  Ilahoun,  and  the  famous  city  Ilium  of  the 
Troado.  Manahath  is  the  founder  of  Mender,  and  Mandara  or 
Month-ra,  and  also  had  his  name  conferred  upon  Monetium  of  tho 
Japodes,  like  the  Eneti,  an  lUyrian  people."*  Ebal,  in  the  form  of 
Gebal,  appears  in  Phcenicia,  and  tlio  character  of  the  initial  sound  is 
at  once  seen  in  tho  form  Byblus,  which  consists  in  the  jiretix  of  tho 
Coptic  article.  Onam  we  have  already  connected  with  On  or 
Heliopolis  in  Egypt.  The  Colchian  city  jEa  may  bo  a  reminiscence 
of  A  jail,  while  Anah  is  almost  proved  to  be  the  progenitor  of  the 
Eneti  by  the  fact  that  thcii-  ancestor  in  the  Welsh  mythical  history 
is  Gwynn,  a  word  which  reproduces  the  power  of  the  initial  Ay  in  of 
the  Hebrew  name.'  The  sons  of  Dislion  seem  to  have  sent  colonies 
to  Persia,  for  Hamadan,  Ispahan  and  Teheran  are  too  near  Hemdan, 
Esliban  and  Ithran  to  be  accidental.  In  Eshban  Ave  also  find 
Hispania,  while  Ithran  and  Tyrrhenia  agree.  As  for  Cheran,  no 
form  is  more  common  in  universal  geography.     Aziris  in  Libya,  and 

6  Geaciiii  Lexicon  in  he. 

0  I  has  Iiero  to  express  my  public  acknowledgment  of  Dr.  Clarke's  valuable  suggestions  in 
connection  witli  tlie  special  subject  of  tliis  ilivisiun  of  tlie  paper  ;  altliougli  tlie  field  to  wliicli  I 
have  couliiiial  my  attention  principally  is  geojjrapliically,  and  perhaps  clironologically,  different 
from  that  ill  which  ho  has  pursued  his  important  investigations. 

■«*  We  Und  Soba,  Alva  and  JIandara  in  close  proximity.    Lepsius'  Letters,  163. 

T  Davies'  Celtic  Kesearches,  107. 


many  similar  names  in  Syria  and  Asia  Minor,  remind  ns  of  Ezer. 
Like  correspondences  are  found  with  the  remaining  eponyms  of  the 
Horite  family.  The  question  has  often  been  asked,  Whence  came 
the  Phoenicians,  that  ancient  and  distinguished  people  ?  Hei-odotus 
and  other  writers  tell  us  that  their  own  account  brought  them  from 
the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea.'*  Now,  on  these  shores  we  find  the  Beni- 
Jaakan  of  the  sons  of  Ezer,  and  this  compound  word,  not  the  Beni- 
Anakim  of  Bochart,  is  the  original  of  the  national  designation 
Phoenician.*  It  may  seem  that  thus  I  reduce  all  the  civilized  peoples 
of  the  world  to  one  ancestry,  and  represent  the  Horites  as  the  one 
people  of  antiquity,  in  the  same  way  as  older  writers  have  dealt  with 
their  Arkites,  Atlantides,  Cushites,  &c.  This,  however,  is  not  the 
case.  There  are,  at  least,  six  other  families  of  little  importance, 
and  many  more  which  contributed  largely  to  early  civilization,  that 
I  hope  in  time  to  bring  under  the  notice  of  the  student  of  ancient 
history.*  That  we  find  the  Horites,  or  reminiscences  of  them,  in 
nearly  every  country  need  not  be  matter  of  surprise,  for  what  has 
been  often  remarked  in  regard  to  the  mixture  of  peoples  in  the  popu- 
lations of  Greece  and  India  is  true  of  almost  every  land  possessing  a 
histoiy.     There  is  no  such  thing  as  a  pure  civilized  race. 

III. — One  family  of  the  Horites  appears,  in  a  somewhat 


A  serious  objection  assails  me  upon  the  threshold  of  proof.  It  is 
this.  The  second  chapter,  and  part  of  the  fourth,  of  the  fii-st  book 
of  Chronicles  profess  to  contain  the  genealogies  of  the  sons  of  Judah. 
Under  what  pretence,  then,  can  I  introduce  the  Horites]  I  answer, 
upon  several  good  grounds.  In  the  first  place,  mention  is  made  in 
these  genealogies  of  men  who  certainly  were  not  «Tews.  Such  ( 1  Ch. 
ii.  55)  are  the  Kenites,  that  came  of  Hemath,  the  father  of  the  house 
of  Rechab,  a  line  mentioned  in  the  second  verse  of  the  35th  chapter  of 
Jeremiah.  Such,  also,  are  the  Kenezites,  first  mentioned  in  the  19th 
verse  of  the  15th  chapter  of  Grenesis,  and  to  whom  Caleb,  the  son  of 
Jephunneh   (Numbers    xxxii.   12,  Joshua  xiv.  6),  is  said  to  have 

'•  Herodot.  vii.  89.    Btrabonis  Oeog.,  766. 

•  Bochart,  Canaan  i.  i.  347. 

*  Such  are  the  sons  of  Salma  and  Hareph  (1  Cbron.  ii.  61,  64),  the  Jerahmeelites  (It.  36),  tlie 
children  of  Btam  (ir.  3),  of  Ashchur  (ir.  6),  of  Coz  (iv,  8),  of  Kenaz  (iv,  19),  of  Bna  (iv.  17),  Ao. 


belonged.  Their  genealogy  is  given,  1  Chron.  iv.  1 3,  <kc.  In  the  ninth 
verse  of  the  same  chapter,  Jabez  is  more  honourable  than  his  brethi'en, 
because  he  called  on  the  God  of  Israel,  not,  we  may  conclude,  on  his 
own  gods,  as  his  brethren  were  in  the  habit  of  doing,  Jabez  was  no 
Israelite.  In  the  eighteenth  verse,  a  daughter  of  Pharaoh  marries 
Mered  (literally  the  rebel),  a  most  unlikely  name  for  a  descendant  ot 
Judah.  He  is  doubtless  prince  Mourhet,  who  is  said  to  have  married 
a  daughter  of  Cheops,  and  whose  features,  as  represented  on  the 
Egyptian  monuments,  are  not  at  all  Jewish.'"  In  the  19th  verse,  we 
read  of  Eshtemoa,  the  Miiachathite ;  but  the  Maachathites  (Deut. 
iii.  13,  2  Sam.  x.  6),  were,  with  the  rreshurites,  an  independent 
people,  who  at  times  warred  with  the  Israelites.  Who  can  throw 
light  upon  the  "  ancient  things  "  of  verses  21-3  1  With  what  king  of 
Israel  do  those,  who  had  dominion  in  Moab,  connect  as  his  servants  1 
The  names  of  the  supposed  descendants  of  Judah  are  not  Jewish, 
What  Jew  would  call  his  son  Caleb  (a  dog),  a  name  which  so 
frequently  occurs  and  in  the  greatest  confusion  1  The  family  men- 
tioned in  chapter  ii.  43-45,  is  from  its  names  clearly  Midianite,  and 
two  of  the  names  in  chapter  iv.  25,  are  Ishmaelite,  The  second 
chapter,  as  far  as  the  17th  verse,  seems  to  contain,  with  a  few  inter- 
polations, a  record  of  the  children  of  Judah ;  the  whole  of  the  third 
is  taken  up  with  the  family  of  David;  but  I  have  no  evidence, 
beyond  the  words  of  the  first  verse  of  the  fourth  chapter,  "  The  sons 
of  Judah ;  Pharez,  Hezron,  and  Carmi,  and  Hur,  and  Shobal,"  that 
the  families  mentioned  in  it  were  Israelites  in  any  sense  of  the  term. 
The  23rd  chapter  of  second  Samuel,  and  the  11th  chapter  of  the  book 
we  are  considering,  shed  some  light  upon  the  nationality  of  those 
mentioned  in  its  second  and  fourth  chapters.  In  the  54th  verse  of 
the  second  chapter,  the  Netophathites  are  mentioned,  and  the  Ithrites 
■'n  the  53rd  verse,  while  the  head  of  Tekoa  appeal's  in  the  fifth  of 
the  fourth  chapter,  and  a  Maachathite  in  the  nineteenth.  Now,  in 
the  chaptera  above  mentioned  (2  Sam.  xxiii.,  and  1  Chron.  xi.),  we 
find  Maharai  and  Heleb,  Netophathites,  Ira  and  Gareb,  Ithrites, 
Eliphelet,  the  Maachathite,  and  another  Ira,  a  Tekoite,  I  might 
also  compare  Hushah,  the  son  of  Ezer  (1  Chron.  iv.  4),  with  (2  Sam. 
xxiii.  27  and  1  Chron.  xi.  29),  Mebunnai  and  Sibbecai,  the  Husha- 
thites.     It  may  be  said  that  these  are  still  Israelites,  taking  their 

W  Nott  and  Gliddon  In  their  joint  ethnological  work,  p,  177.     Osbum,  Monumental  History 
of  Egypt,  i.  464,  seq.    Lepiiua'  Letters,  61. 


names  from  the  towns  they  inhabited.  If  so,  why  is  Ittai  (2  Sam^ 
xxiii.  29)  called  a  Benjamite,  Bani  (2  Sam.  xxiii.  36)  a  Gadite,  and 
Adina  (1  Chron.  xi,  42)  a  Reubenitel  It  cannot  be  said  that  Zelek, 
the  Ammonite,  Ithmah,  the  Moabite,  Nahari,  the  Beerothite,  and 
Uriah,  the  Hittite,  who  are  mentioned  (2  Sam.  xxiii.  37,  39, 
1  Chron.  xi.  46)  together  with  them,  are  Israelites.  Tliere  is  more 
historic  tnith  than  men  are  aware  of  in  the  words  of  the  Apostle 
Paul,  "  For  they  are  not  all  Israel  which  are  of  Israel."  It  is  plain, 
not  only  that  many  had,  like  Caleb,  part  and  lot  with  Israel  in  the 
land  of  promise  who  were  not  descendants  of  Abraham,  but  that  the 
kingdom  of  Israel,  in  the  time  of  David,  consisted  of  a  number  of 
different  nationalities.  The  line  of  Jerahmeel,  which  is  given  in 
1  Chron.  ii.  25-41,  is  not  an  ..ibrahamic  family,  although  I  do  not 
deny  that  there  may  have  been  a  Jerahmeel  in  the  line  of  Judah. 
We  meet  with  these  Jerahmeelites  in  1  Sam.  xxvii.  10,  where  David 
is  represented  as  telling  Achish  that  he  had  made  a  road  against  the 
south  of  Judah,  and  against  the  south  of  the  Jerahmeelites,  and 
against  the  south  of  the  Kenites,  as  if  they  were  three  distinct 
peoples.  Also,  in  the  30th  chapter,  the  Jerahmeelites  and  the 
Kenites  are  sjioken  of  as  dwelling  in  cities,  wliUe  the  same  is  not  said 
of  any  of  his  confederates  and  friends  to  whom  David  sent  presents. 
In  connection  with  this  passage,  as  showing  the  position  of  Caleb  the 
Kenezite,  we  find  (verse  14)  the  Egyptian  slave  deserted  by  the 
Amalekites  saying,  "  We  made  an  invasion  upon  the  south  of  the 
Cherethites,  and  upon  the  coast  which  belongeth  to  Judah,  and  upon 
the  south  of  Caleb."  The  Cherethites  have  been  clearly  shewn,  and 
are  now  generally  allowed  to  have  been,  Cretans ;  and  Caleb's 
descendants  are  no  less  thoroughly  distinguished  from  the  .people  of 
Judah  than  are  these  Japhetic  warriors. 

I  might  dwell  upon  the  antiquity  of  Bethlehem  Ephratah,  which 
(1  Chi'on.  ii,  19,  24,  50)  derives  its  name  from  Ephrath,  the  wife  of 
Caleb,  the  father  or  son  of  Hur,  for  there  is  contradiction  here  ;  an 
antiquity  which  is  well  shewn  (Gen.  xxxv.  16,  19)  by  its  possessing 
that  name  in  the  time  of  Jacob.  Yet  Caleb  is  the  gi-eat-gi-andson  of 
Judali  by  a  very  late  comiection.  It  is  somewhat  strange  that  none 
of  the  gi-eat  names  of  these  genealogies,  if  we  except  the  immediate 
descendants  of  Judali,  and  Caleb  the  son  of  Jephunneh,  over  appear 
in  any  other  part  of  the  Bible.  With  the  exceptiqn  of  the  ancestors 
of  David,  and  the  families  of  the  Levites  iu  the  sixth  chapter,  the 


lists  are  utterly  useless  for  genealogical  purposes  ;  and  we  have  no 
record  that  the  twelve  tribes  ever  employed  them  for  such  an  end,  or 
even  that  the  most  learned  of  their  rabbis  have  been  able  to  reduce 
them  to  order.  It  is  utterly  impossible  to  reduce  them  to  order,  on 
the  hypothesis  or  understanding  that  they  represent  the  descendants 
of  Judah,  Benjamin,  &c.  The  Ham  and  Hur  and  Salma  of  Judah 
cannot  be  reconciled  with  those  of  the  same  name  afterward  men- 
tioned ;  neither  can  the  Beni-Jamin  of  the  seventh  chapter  be  made 
to  agree  with  the  children  of  Jacob's  youngest  born.  What,  then, 
it  may  be  asked,  is  the  alternative  ]  The  books  of  Chronicles  are  of 
low  canonicity — for  the  Jew  places  them  at  the  end  of  the  hagi  i- 
grapha.  Shall  they  be  deemed  unworthy  of  the  canon  ?  Far  from 
it.  I  regard  the  first  book  of  Chronicles  as  one  of  the  most  valuaL!-; 
books  in  the  Old  Testament  Scriptures.  It  contains  what  is  found 
in  no  other  book  in  the  world,  a  brief  but  most  comprehensive  record 
of  all  the  great  families  of  antiquity.  It  embraces  a  large  Gentile 
genealogy,  or  series  of  genealogies,  overshadowing  those  of  the 
Hebrew  people ;  and  this  accounts  for  the  mystification  of  all  the 
Jewish  doctors.  They  never  thought  of  looking  in  the  inspired 
wiitings  of  their  canon  for  a  sign  of  the  Divine  interest  in  all  the 
nations  of  the  earth,  beyond  that  furnished  in  the  tenth  chapter  of 

The  books  of  Chronicles  are  among  the  least  edited,  even  at  the 
present  day,  of  all  the  books  of  the  Bible.  The  versions  of  these 
books  differ  widely,  to  an  extravagant  degree,  in  the  names  given  in 
the  first  few  chaptei's  of  the  first  book  and  in  other  particulai-s."  It 
may  yet  be  found  by  scholars  possessing  greater  Oriental  erudition 
and  greater  facilities  than  I  can  command,  that  the  connection  of  the 
sons  of  Jacob  with  these  Gentile  families  is  the  result  of  ancient 
rabbinical  interpolation ;  and  that  a  well  meant,  but  injudicious, 
attempt  to  clear  up  a  mystery  has  led  to  the  serioiis  confusion  that 
80  frequently  appears.  I  may  state  here,  once  for  all,  that  nothing 
short  of  the  most  serious  and  long  settled  conviction  of  the  truth 
and  important  reality  of  my  discovery  could  induce  me  to  cast  a 
doubt  upon  the  presently  received  views  in  regard  to  this  portion  of 
the  Sacred  Volume.  With  the  Apostle  Paul  I  trust  ever  to  be  able 
to  take  aa  my  motto,  "  We  can  do  nothing  against  the  truth,  but  for 
the  truth,"  meaning  by  that  Truth  the   inspired  Word  of   God, 

"  E.g.,  Tbe  Septuagiot  and  Syriac  versions. 


whether  that  inspiration  regard  matter  of  doctrine  or  of  history. 
In  the  meanwhile,  I  assume  thd  oon-ectness  of  our  present  Hebrew 
version  of 'the  first  book  of  Chronicles,  and,  to  account  for  the 
presence  of  the  Gentile  names  which  I  find  in  the  first  few  chapters, 
suggest  the  following  hypotheses  : 

1.  Together  with  the  descendants  of  the  sons  of  Jacob,  there  may 
have  been  included  in,  the  lists  their'  connections  by  marriage. — This 
except  in  the  case  of  Bithiah  the  daughter  of  Pliaraoh,  and  the 
Kenites  (Judges  iv.  11),  who  should  have  been  numbered  among  the 
descendants  of  Levi  rather  than  of  Judah,  I  cannot  perceive. 

2.  Or,  together  with  them,  tliere  Tnay  have  been  included  a  mixed 
multitude  of  otlier  races  t/iat  had  suffered  oppression  along  with  them 
in  Egypt,  and  liad  part  in  their  deliverance. — This  might  help  to 
satisfy  Dr.  Colenso's  doubts,  and  is  true  in  so  far  as  the  Kenites  and 
some  of  the  Kenezites  are  concerned.  It  must,  however,  make  the 
list  retrospective,  giving  the  ancestors  of  these  fugitives  back  to  or 
beyond  the  time  of  Abraham.  Even  thus,  my  investigations  have 
shewn  me  that  it  will  not  account  for  all  the  lines  mentioned,  many 
of  whom  had  little  or  no  late  connection  with  Palestine. 

3.  Or — CTid  this  I  think  is  the  truth — Southern  Palestine  was  the 
great  centre  of  a  later  dispersion  than  that  of  Babel,  being  the  hightvay 
to  Egypt  and  Arabia,  Syria,  and  Asia  Minor  ;  and  tlie  Mosaic  narra- 
tive, looking  ratlier  to  geographical  than  tribal  descent,  gives  here  the 
eponyim  of  the  va/rious  states  and  cities  into  tfi^e  possession  of  which 
Israel  entered. — There  is  a  significance  which  we  do  not  yet  under- 
stand in  the  words  of  Moses  (Deut.  xxxii.  7,  8),  "  Remember  the 
days  of  old,  consider  the  years  of  many  generations  ;  a^k  thy  father 
and  he  will  shew  thee  ;  thy  elders  and  they  will  tell  thee.  When 
the  Most  High  divided  to  the  nations  their  inheritance,  when  he 
separated  the  sons  of  Adam,  he  set  the  bounds  of  the  people  accord- 
ing to  the  number  of  the  children  of  Isi-ael."  This  hypothesis  will 
account  for  the  immense  disproportion  between  the  number  of  the 
descendants  of  Judah  and  those  of  the  other  tribes  supposed  to  be 
placed  on  record  in  these  chapters,  since  they  occupied  the  larger  por- 
tion of  Soutliern  Palestine ;  although  it  is  time  (Numbers  i.  27)  that 
the  children  of  Judah  wei-e  more  numerous  than  those  of  any  other 
of  the  sons  of  Jacob.  I  now  proceed  to  find  among  the  names  con- 
nected wifli  the  mention  of  this  tribe  one  of  the  families  of  the 


Horites,  whose  position  geographically  •would  bring  them,  if  my 
hypothesis  be  correct,  within  its  limits. 

The  only  Shobal  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  apart  from  the  families  of 
the  Horites,  is  one  that  appears  in  1  Chron.  ii.  50,  52,  and  iv.  1,  2. 
The  verses  are,  "  These  are  the  sons  of  Caleb  the  son  of  Hur  (called 
also,  1  Chron.  ii.  19,  the  father  of  Hur),  the  first-born  of  Ephratah ; 
Shobal,  the  father  of  Kirjath-jearim.  And  Shobal,  the  father  of 
Kirjath-jearim,  had  sons;  Hai'oeh  and  half  of  the  Manahethites. 
The  sons  of  Judah ;  Pharez,  Hezron,  and  Carmi  and  Hur  and 
Shobal.  And  Reaiah  (or  Haroeh)  the  son  of  Shobal  begat  Jaliath ; 
and  Jahath  begat  Ahumai  and  Lahad.  These  are  the  families  of  the 
Zorathites."  Among  the  families  of  Kirjath-jearim  ai*e  mentioned, 
in  the  53rd  verse  of  the  second  chapter,  the  Zareathites,  whom  a. 
glance  at  the  Hebrew  text  will  show  to  be  the  same  as  the  so-called, 
Zorathites,  The  name  IJur  is  identical  with  the  root  of  the  word 
Horite.  As  for  Caleb  he  is  ubiquitous  throughout  the  second 
chapter,  and  his  name  is,  from  its  meaning,  clearly  Gentile.  Be  this, 
as  it  may,  we  have  a  Shobal,  itself  not  an  Israelitish  name,  in  con- 
nection with  other  Gentile  appellations,  and  notably  with  a  Hur, 
who  is  not  the  father  of  Uri,  of  whom  came  the  wise  Bezaleel 
(1  Chron.  ii.  20,  Exodus  xxxi.  2),  and  whose  name  agrees  with  the 
Horite  parentage  of  another  Shobal,  frequently  mentioned.  He  is 
the  father  of  Kirjath-jearim.  Now  Kirjath-jearim  (Joshua  ix.  17) 
was  a  city  of  the  Gibeonites,  and  continued  to  be  so,  for  the  Gibeon- 
ites  made  peace  with  Isi*ael  by  artifice.  But  these  Gibeonites  were 
Hivites  (Joshua  ix.  7,  xi.  19),  and  so  also  are  the  Horites  called 
(Gen.  xxxvi.  2.)  The  name  Hivite,  I  am  convinced,  does  not  desig- 
nate Hamitic  or  any  other  kind  of  descent ;  nevertheless  it  forms  a 
link  to  bind  Kiijath-jeai-im  and  the  Horite  stock.  More  important 
is  the  fact  that  the  second  son  of  Shobal,  the  Horite,  and  of  that 
Shobal  who  is  mentioned  in  tiie  book  of  Chronicles,  is  Manahath,  a . 
name  unknown  in  the  annals  of  Israel.  Hui",  Shobal,  and  Manahath, 
form  already  a  threefold  cord  for  the  Horite  connection.  A  difficulty 
appears,  however,  in  the  eldest  son  of  the  Shobal  of  Chronicles,  who 
is  Ha  (the  definite  article)  Roeh  or  Reaiah,  as  contrasted  with  the 
Alvan  or  Allan  of  the  Horite.  I  confess  that  this  staggered  me  for 
a  time,  but  disappeared  as  soon  as  I  began  to  investigate  the  meaning 
of  the  two  words.  The  name  Alvan  or  Allan  is  a  somewhat  Punic 
form  of  the  word  Elioun,  the  most  high,  and  corresponds  with  the 


Ambic  Galijan  (for  its  initial  letter  is  ayin),  meaning  of  lofiy 
stature.^^*  The  Punic  form  appears  in  the  "  Alonim  v  'Alonuth"  of 
the  Poeniilus  of  Plantus,  designating  the  gods  and  goddesses."  I 
must  liere  anticipate  by  introducing  the  authority  of  the  Phoenician 
History  of  Sanchoniatho,  -vrhich  deals  with  the  region  about  the 
Dead  Sea,  Peraea  being  a  primitive  seat."  He  gives,  indeed,  an 
older  divinity,  Elioun,  whom  he  makes  the  husband  of  Beruth,  a 
kind  of  Aphrodite  or  Ephrath,  and  who  would  correspond  with  the 
father  of  Hur ;  but  he  has  a  later  divinity  (no  divinity  with  him 
however),  who  in  the  Greek  translation  is  termed  Ilus  or  Cronus 
and  whose  brothers  are  Betylus,  Dagon,  and  Atlas.  Now,  Betylus 
is  probably  Bethlehem,  closely  connected  with  this  family,  rather 
than  Bethel,  as  many,  like  Bishop  Cumberland,  have  supi)Osed. 
Dagon  I  shall  yet  prove  to  be  Onam.  As  for  Atlas,  he  does  not 
belong  to  this  line  at  all,  but  to  that  of  Jerahmeel.  Tlie  impoi-tant 
pai"t  of  the  name  Alvan  or  Allan  is  the  initial  Al.  The  final  n  is 
valueless,  for  duke  Aliah  of  the  Edomites  is  clearly  of  the  same 
name.  The  yod  and  vav  are,  as  we  see  above,  interchangeable ;  so 
that  the  Al  remains,  denoting  in  Hebrew  and  other  Shemitic  tongues, 
without  any  assistance  of  additional  letters,  the  Most  High,  God. 
This  is  the  Ilus  of  Sanchoniatho,  who  appears  along  with  Dagon  on 
many  sculptured  walls  of  Chaldea.  He  is  there  called  II,  and  is  the 
highest  of  the  Babylonian  divinities.  It  is  in  the  Chaldean  myth- 
ology that  we  are  furnished  with  the  materials  for  identifying  Alvan 
and  Reaiah.  II  or  Ra,  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson  and  many  other 
students  of  Oriental  monuments  and  inscriptions  inform  us,  is  the 
great  god  of  Babylonia."  This  Ra  is  an  Egyptian  term  originally, 
and  denotes  the  sun  in  the  ancient  Coptic  of  the  hieroglyphics.  The 
word  Roeh  or  Haroeh  divested  of  the  definite  article,  denotes, 
accordiiig  to  Gesenius,  vision,  the  sight  of  the  sun ;  and  a  corre- 
sponding Coptic  word  connecting  with  Ra  is  Ro,  the  face.  But 
Fuerst,  with  his  usual  wisdom,  renders  Roeh,  the  All-seeing  One, 
that  is,  God.     Reaiah  seems  to  me  an  attempt  to  provide  a  Hebrew 

H*  For  this  meaning  of  the  name  Alvan  I  have  confirmation  in  the  high  authority  of  Fuerst. 
That  judicious  lexicographer  finds  in  the  word  a  high,  sublime  one,  and  makes  it,  as  I  have 
done,  the  same  as  El  and  Elioun.    Fuerst's  Hebrew  and  Chaldee  Lexicon  in  loo. 
»«  Pluuti  Poenuli,  v.  1. 

IS  Sanclioniatho's  Pbceniclan  History,  by  Cumberland,  107. 

"  Uawlinson's  Herodotus,  App.,  Bit.  i.,  Essay  x.,  s.  2,  (i.)&c.  Both  Ha  and  II  as  conver- 
.  tible  terms  signified  "  a  god  "  in  general,  and  this  agrees  with  Fuerst'a  translatiouB  of  Alvaa 
.4nd  UoeU.    See  below  in  the  text. 


nitme  for  the  son  of  Shobal,  for  Gesenius  makes  it  to  mean  "  whom 
Jehovah  cares  for,"  admitting,  however,  that  Haroeh  designates  the 
same  person.  We  have  in  Alvan  and  Beaiah  two  words  denoting 
supreme  deity.  I  would  only  present  one  additional  proof,  at  this 
stage,  of  the  identity  of  Alvan  and  Reaiah,  II  and  Ra.  It  is  found 
in  connection  with  the  history  of  Sanchoniatho.  Jehid  or  Jeoud  is 
named  as  the  son  of  Ilus,  whom  he  sacrificed  to  his  father  Ouranos. 
Rightly  the  son  of  Reaiah  bears  the  corresponding  name  Jahath. 
All  that  I  demand  at  present  is  a  belief  in  the  probability  that  the 
Horite  Shobal,  with  his  sons  Alvan  and  Manahath,  is  the  same  as 
the  Shobal,  son  of  Hur,  whose  children  are  Roeh  and  Manahath. 
The  identification  of  the  Ilus  and  the  Jehid  of  Sanchoniatho  with 
the  Roeh  or  Reaiah  and  Jahath  of  Chronicles  is  important  but  not 
absolutely  necessary  for  the  burden  of  proof. 


divinities  and  some  of  the  earliest  rulers  of  lower  and 
Upper  Egypt. 

It  is  now,  I  think,  generally  conceded  that  the  earliest  population 
of  Egypt  entered  from  the  north-east,  and  must,  therefore,  if  it  came 
by  land,  as  is  most  likely,  have  passed  through  the  country  of  the 
Horites,  and  have  dwelt  for  a  time,  probably,  in  the  south-western 
comer  of  Palestine,  about  the  kingdom  of  Gerar,  visited  by  Abraham 
and  Isaac,  but  of  which  we  hear  nothing  in  later  times.  The  Scrip- 
tures call  Egypt  Mizraim,  and  we  are  therefore  justified  in  believing 
that  the  son  of  Ham  of  that  name  was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  in 
the  land.  But  it  is  to  be  remarked  that  no  race,  royal  or  princely, 
in  Egypt,  ever  claimed  descent  from  this  ancestor.  The  connection 
of  Mizraim  with  Menes  and  others  is  sheer  imfoimded  hypothesis, 
and  I  shall  yet  show  that  CJiemi,  a  name  of  this  ancient  country, 
bears  no  reference,  as  it  is  often  supposed  to  do,  to  Ham  himself. 
My  own  impression,  I  do  not  say  decided  conviction,  is  that  the 
Hamites,  if  they  exercised  sovereign  authority  at  all,  did  so  for  a 
very  short  time  and  during  a  period  which  is  unhistorical,  after  which 
they  became  the  subjects  of  a  superior  race.  Many  writers,  with 
Shuckford,  have  supposed  the  Horites  to  be  the  invaders  of  Egypt, 
known  as  the  Shepherd  Kings."  That  they  did  invade  Egypt  can 
be  clearly  proved,  but  it  was  at  an  earlier  period  than  that  of  the 

I*  Shuckford's  Connection  of  Baored  and  Profane  History.    Original  edition,  ii.  236. 


Hycsos,  for  tho  dynasty  which  these  invaders  ovei'threw  was  Horite. 
It  is  worthy  of  note  that  among  the  many  races  with  whom  the  con- 
quering Pharaohs  are  said  to  have  wanted,  and  whose  names  are 
recorded  on  various  raonumenis,  the  Horites  never  appear. 

One  of  the  earliest  names  of  Egypt  is  Aeria.  The  Eev.  W.  B. 
Galloway,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  many  valuable  suggestions, 
both  from  pei-sonal  communications  and  from  his  published  oinnions, 
together  with  other  writers,  connects  this  name  with  the  Auritab 
of  tho  Old  Chronicle.'*  These  Auritae  are  given  as  the  first  great 
race  of  Egypt,  including  gods,  demi-gods,  and  men."  Their  gods, 
indeed,  the  Egyptians  allowed  to  have  been  but  deified  men.'*  These 
Auritae  are  the  Hor  Shesu,  servants  of  Horus  or  families  of  the 
Horites,  of  the  monuments  and  papyri."  I  need  not  tell  any  student 
of  Egyptian  antiquities  that  Horus  is  the  greatest  of  all  names  in 
the  Egyptian  mythology.  It  is  an  aspirated  word,  having  the  form 
Choris,  shewing  the  power  of  the  Hebrew  Oheth,  and  appears 
frequently  as  a  tennination  to  the  names  of  many  kings,  Nepher- 
oheres,  Tancheres,  Zebercheres,  &c.  In  this  family  several  of  the 
principal  gods  of  the  Egyptians  are  to  be  found.  We  shall  not  find 
Osiris  here,  nor  his  near  relation  Atmoo ;  these  belong  to  the  family 
of  Etam.  Neither  will  Ammon  and  his  son  Khensu  meet  us ;  these 
are  later,  and  connect  with  the  son  of  Lot.  The  purely  solar 
divinities,  the  centre  of  whom  is  Ra,  the  sun,  are  the  representatives 
of  the  family  of  Shobal. 

The  first  to  engage  our  attention  is  the  ancestor  of  the  gods  of  the 
Auritae.  His  name  is  Seb,  Sebek,  or  Seb-i-a,  and  he  is  Cronus  or 
Time.  In  him  we  find  the  Shobal  of  Mount  Seir.  As  the  Al  of 
Alvan  becomes  the  Ea  of  Chronicles,  so  the  final  al  of  Shobal, 
although  a  different  syllable,  is  represented  by  the  ra  which  is  affixed 

1»  Egypt's  Record  of  Time  to  the  Exodus  of  Israel,  130.  Mr.  Galloway  while  rightly  con- 
necting Aeria  and  tlie  Auritw,  as  Kenrick  and  many  others  liave  done,  puts  a  most  just  and 
reasonable  faith  in  ttie  antiquity  of  both  words,  in  which  these  writers  do  not  generally  agree 
with  liim.  Wliilo  agreeing  fully  with  Mr.  Galloway  in  Ida  derivation  of  tlie  Assyrian  lino  from 
.Egypt  and  ideutiUcation  of  Scsostris  with  Xisuthrus,  I  regret  that  I  cannot  find  with  him  the 
word  Atliyrian  or  Assyrian  in  Aeria.  The  Assyrian  line  is  tliat  of  Asshur  or  Ashcur,  whose 
son  Achashtari  is  Sesostris  and  Xisuthrus.  This  line  was  from  an  early  period  inimical  to  the 

w  Old  Egyptian  Chronicle  in  Cory's  Ancient  Fragments.  Tliere  can  be  no  reason  for  reject- 
ing the  name  Auritae  more  than  for  discarding  the  two  otlijr  designations,  Mcstraei  and 
Acgypti,  to  which  no  exception  is  talcen, 

18  Tliis  is  stated  by  Diodorus  Siculus  and  others.  All  tlie  Pharaohs  when  dead  became  gods. 
Lenormant  and  Cliovalier,  1.  294. 

v>  Lenormant  and  Chevalier,  Manual  of  the  Ancient  History  of  the  East,  i.  202, 


to  the  name  of  the  Egyptian  god.  Th«  son  of  Seb  is  Ra,  the  sun, 
nnd  in  him  we  have  the  II  or  Ra  of  the  Babyionians,  and  the  Alvan 
or  Keaioh  of  the  sacred  narrative.  A  brother  of  Ba  is  the  deity 
Month  or  Month-ra.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Osburn  for  a  confirma- 
tion of  my  identification  of  the  name  Mauahath  with  that  of  this 
god.'"  Still  another  is  An-ra,  connected  with  On  or  Heliopolis,  and 
he  is  Onam,  the  youngest  or  lust  mentioned  of  the  Shobalian  breth- 
ren. Fuerst  points  out  that  the  m  of  Onam  is  a  noun  tei*mination 
common  among  the  Edomites.  Jahath,  or  as  we  may  also  read  it, 
allowing  for  the  power  of  the  medial  Cheth,  Jachath,  appears  in 
subjection  to  these,  and  among  the  descendants  of  Seb,  as  Ati-ra  or 
Achthoes-ra,  a  name  we  are  yet  to  become  moi-e  familiar  with. 
Lower  still  in  order,  yet  not  in  point  of  dignity  and  importance,  is 
Ahora-ra,  and  he  is  the  Ahumai  who  appears  as  the  eldest  son  of 
Jahath.  Two  goddesses  connect  with  this  remarkable  line.  One  is 
Neith,  whose  name,  meaning  to  level  a  bow,  is  identical  with  the 
Hebrew  Nahath,  which  is  the  same  as  Manahath,  without  the  pre- 
fixed Mem.  The  other  is  Hekt,  which  is  simply  an  abbreviated  form 
of  Jachath,  the  initial  yod  being  converted  into  a  breathing. 

Some  of  these  divinities  were  rulers  in  Egypt.  As  for  Seb  or 
Shobal  and  Ra  or  Alvan,  we  have  no  evidence  that  they  ever  exer- 
cised sovereignty  in  that  land.  Alvan,  whom  we  have  seen  to  be  in 
all  probability  the  Ilus  of  Sanchoniatho,  ruled,  I  am  persuaded,  in 
the  south  of  Palestine,  whence  his  more  adventurous  brother  Mana- 
hatli  pushed  on  into  Egypt,  pi'obably  taking  with  him  Onam  and 
Jahath  the  son  of  Alvan.  I  shall  yet  give  good  reasons  for  limiting 
Alvan  to  Palestine,  and  making  a  pi'obable  connection  for  him  with 
the  Abimelechs  of  Gorar.  The  region  chosen  by  Manahath  for  his 
settlement  was  Tanis  oi  Zoan  in  the  north-east  of  the  land  of  Egypt, 
a  city  built  seven  years  before  Hebron  in  Palestine.  It  may  have 
been  built  at  that  time  by  Manahath  himself,  but  tlii..  I  think  hardly 
probable.  Close  at  hand  is  Mendes  giving  its  name  to  the  Mendesian 
nome.  This  Mendes  is  the  city  of  Month,  who  is  Manahath  ;  and 
Manahath  himself  is  the  first  ruler  of  the  Egyptians,  the  great 
Meues,  whose  name  and  fame  descended  i.o  all  lands  as  Menu, 
Minos,  Mannus,  Manes,  Menw,  Mingti,  and  even  it  may  be  the 
Algonquin  Manitou.  'the  first  ruler  of  Egypt,  and  the  first  law- 
giver among  all  peoples  who  ever  pi-etended  to  the  benefits  of  Egypt's 
early  civilization,  is  the  second  son  of  Shobal  the  Hoiite. 

W  Monuiucntal  History  of  Egypt,  i.  841. 


A  little  later  than  Manahath  wo  find  Onam.  Not  contented  la 
share  his  brother's  empire  or  to  occupy  the  position  of  a  subject,  he 
turned  southward,  and,  a  little  below  the  point  of  divergence  of  the 
Nile's  various  branches,  founded  a  town,  which  he  named  after  him- 
self. On,  the  strong  city  of  the  Sun,  also  called  An-ra.  There  he  kept 
regal  state  for  some  years,  until  a  new  invasion  drove  him  from  the 
throne  ;  and  his  descendants  the  Anu,  after  threatening  Egypt  for  a 
time  from  the  coasts  of  Arabia  Petraea,  withdrew  at  last  to  Ohaldea.'' 
'  On  the  lists  he  appears  as  Onnos  j  but  his  name  as  found  upon  the 
monuments  is  An,  represented  by  the  figure  of  a  fish."  There  can 
be  no  doubt  that  he  is  the  Babylonian  Oannes  or  Dagon,  so  intimately 

•  connected  with  Ilus,  none  other  than  his  oldest  brother  Alvan.* 

I  cannot  tell  precisely  at  what  period  Jahath  or  Jachath,  the  son 

■  of  Alvan  or  Beaiah,  began  his  unhappy  reign,  whether  during  the 

life  of  his  uncle  Manahath  or  after  his  death.     He  ia  Achthoes,  the 

•cruel   king   of  Heracleopolis,   who    was   killed  by  his  guards  and 

Hercules,  according  to  the  lists.     There  are  or  were  at  least  three 

towns  in  Egypt  called  Heracleopolis,  two  of  which  were  in  the  Delta, 

•  one  at  its  eastern  and  the  other  at  its  western  extremity,  while  the 
tbird  was  situated  on  the  left  side  of  the  Nile  below  Lake  Moeris.  It 
is  probable  that  Achthoes  inhabited  and  ruled  over  the  town  to  the 

•  east  of  the  Delta,  not  far  from  the  dominions  of  his  father  Alvan  on 
the  one  hand  and  those  of  his  uncle  Manahath  on  the  other.  He  is 
fully  identified  with  the  solar  line  of  Seb,"  and  his  name  is  read  Ati 

•  on  the  monuments,  where  he  is  also  represented  as  a  monarch  cut  off 
in  the  flower  of  his  age.  This  may  agree  with  the  statement  of 
Sanchoniatho  «s  to  the  unhappy  fate  of  Jehid  or  Jeoud,  the  son  of 
Ilus.  This  Jachath  or  Achthoes  was  r onfederate  with  Nesteres,  the 
son  of  Usecheres,  whom  I  will  yet  show  to  be  Ha  (the  definite 
article)  Ahashtari  the  son  of  Ashchur  (or  as  our  English  version  of 
the  Bible  erroneously  reads  ABshur),  a  great  name  in  a  distinguished 
family,  the  Ashtar  of  the  Shepherd  Kings."  He,  however,  is  no 
Horite,  and  for  the  present  must  be  dismissed.  Nesteres  or  Ahash- 
tari  and  Achthoes  together  made  war  upon  Onam  or  Onnos,  the 

n  Lenormant  and  Chevalier,  i.  296,  IL  359. 

»  Osburn,  i.  311. 

**  Bonomi,  Nineveh  and  its  Palaces,  830,  qaotea  some  ralaable  remarks  of  Hiss  Fannjr 

•  Corbeauz,  conaecting  On  and  Dagon. 

M  Oibum,  I.  373. 
«  Id.,  U.  622. 


nncle  of  the  latter,  and  the  conclusion  of  the  war  was  a  treaty,  one 
of  the  provisions  of  which  was  the  marriage  of  a  daughter  of  Onnos 
to  Achtlioos,  who  was  thus  united  to  his  cousin.  Achthoes  holds  a 
high  position  among  the  Pharaohs,  and  spite  of  his  traditional 
cruelty  and  unhappy  end,  is  frequently  refeiTed  to  by  later  monai'chs, 
who  trace  their  descent  from  the  Horites  of  the  line  of  SQb."* 

The  death  of  Achthoes  or  Jachath  and  the  Shepherd  invasion, 
which  is  really  the  period  of  the  supremacy  of  Ashtari  and  his 
family,  were  coincident.  The  line  of  Seb,  or,  as  he  is  at  times  called, 
Sebek,  j  ust  as  Sibulla  gives  Spica,  was  driven  out  of  Lower  Egypt, 
and  had  to  take  refuge  at  Coptos.**  There  dwelt  the  descendants  of 
Achthoes,  the  children  of  Seb,  the  worshippers  of  Horus,  the 
religious  faction  or  party  known  as  the  Mentcherian  (Month-Hor). 
The  head  of  this  Upper  Egyptian  monarchy  was  the  son  of  Ati  or 
Achthoes,  whose  name  on  the  monuments  and  in  the  lists  varies 
between  Ahmes  and  Kames.  In  Kames,  the  initial  vowel  is  want- 
ing, and  its  absence  brings  out  the  full  power  of  the  Hebrew  Cheth 
of  Achumai.  He  is  also  the  head  of  the  family,  which,  gathering 
strength  in  the  south,  rose  at  length  in  rebellion  against  the  Shethite 
power,  and  reasserted  the  dignity  of  the  line  of  Horus.  His  brother 
Lahad  I  have  not  yet  identified.  I  am  not  satisfied  that  he  is  Alites 
or  Salatis ;  yet  Lud,  an  ancient  name  of  the  Egyptians,  seems  to 
connect  with  him.  There  are  links  to  bind  the  stock  of  Jahath  to 
Lower  as  well  as  to  Upper  Egypt  at  this  period,  and  it  is  possible 
that  Lahad  may  have  taken  i)art  in  his  brother's  expulsion.  With 
Newton,  however,  "hypotheses  non  fingo." 

It  is  interesting  to  note  the  date  of  this  division  of  the  Egyptian 
empire,  as  it  is  afforded  us  by  the  statements  of  Scripture.     We 
may  conclude  that  Shobal  and  Zibeon  were  contemporaries,  Shobal,^. 
if  anything,  being  a  little  earlier  than  his  brother. 
Seir  or  Hur. 

Shobal.  Zibeon.  Abraham. 

Alvau  or  Reaiah.        Anah.  Isaac. 

Jahath.  Aholibamah — Esau.  Jacob. 

Ahumai.  Joseph. 

«»  For  the  connection  of  Seb,  Achthoei,  Mencheres,  and  Onnoi,  see  Osburn,  L  873,  ftc. 
M  Osbuni,  iL  64,  && 


According  to  the  above  table,  Ahumai  ami  the  patriarcli  Joseph 
are  coiatemporaries,  so  tliat  Jdsepli  appears  properly  iu  Egyjit  during 
the  i>erifxl  of  the  so-called  Shepherd  Kings.  This  agrees  with  the 
almost  universal  tnulition  that  he  lived  and  ruled  under  Apophis, 
the  gi-eatest  of  that  line."  As  Apophis,  however,  was  not  the  first 
of  his  dynasty  in  order  of  reigning,  I  am  disposed  to  throw  Shobal 
a  little  farther,  say  half  a  generation,  back  into  the  past.  With  tho 
line  that  displaced  the  Horites  we  have,  at  i>re8ent,  nothing  to  do. 
At  their  head  stands  the  family  of  Ashchur,  or  as  he  is  generally 
called  Usecheres,  and,  liS  the  central  figure  in  their  family,  Achash- 
tari,  who  is  at  once  Ashtar  and  Sesostris.  It  was  he  who  overthrew 
the  Horite  power  in  Lower  Egypt,  and  who,  once  an  ally  of 
Achthoes,  became  the  Sheth  that  stands  ever  after  as  the  enemy  of 
Horns  and  all  his  race.  These  identifications  are  given  in  few 
words,  but  are  the  results  of  many  labours  and  much  patient  investi- 
gation. They  are  clearly  established  in  my  own  mind,  and  abundance 
of  proof  for  them  will  emerge  both  in  this  paper  and  in  future 
accounts  of  other  great  families  of  antiquity.  I  am  convinced  that 
no  intelligent  Egyptologist  will  lightly  pass  by  what  he  must  regard, 
at  the  least,  as  a  series  of  extraordinary  coincidences,  unparalleled  in 
the  connections  of  Sacred  and  Pi-ofane  History. 

V. — From  this  family  op  Shobal,  in  the  line  of  Ra  or 
Alvan,  came  the  Caphtorim  who  invaded  Palestine  beforb 

THE   close   of   the   WANDERINGS   OP   ISRAEL. 

Before  proceeding  with  the  proof  of  this  statement  in  itself,  I  may 
be  allowed  to  dwell  for  a  short  time  upon  the  fact  that  the  southern 
dynasty  founded  by  Ahumai  or  Achumai,  as  AJimes  or  Karnes,  is 
the  dynasty  of  Syncellus,  called  that  of  the  Aegypti.  SynceUus  and 
other  sources  of  Egyptian  history  give  us  three  dynasties  of  rulers  in 
the  land  of  the  Pharaohs,  the  Auritae,  whose  history  we  have  con- 
sidered, the  Mestmei,  and  the  Aegypti.'*  The  Mestraei  are  the 
Shethites  of  Ahashtari,  who  is  called  Nesterea  by  decipherers  of  the 
monumental  records.  The  Aegypti  are  the  revived  Horite  line  under 
Ahumai,  who  is  himself  Aegyptus.  I  proceed  to  the  proof,  and  in 
giving  it  will  anticipate  somewhat  by  introducing  etymological  and 
historical  illustrations  from  other  languages  and  mythical  histories. 

*i  Lepsius'  Letters,  480,  487. 
-**  Vide  Cory's  Ancient  Fragmenta. 


The  region  in  which  the  Horite  family  in  the  lino  of  Ahumai  or 
Ahnios  took  refuge,  and  in  which  it  exercised  regal  dominion,  was 
that  of  Coptos.  This  word  hu«  been  generally  and  rightly  suppoHod 
to  be  the  root  of  the  name  ^^gypt,  the  Egyptians  themselves  being 
known  as  Copts.  We  learn,  however,  that  the  ancient  name  of 
CoptoB  was  Chemmis,  and  this  Chemmis,  the  abode  of  the  god  Khem 
or  Ahom,  gives  us  as  its  eponym  Kames  or  Ahmes,  otherwise 
Ahumai.  The  ancient  name  of  Egypt,  as  a  whole,  was  Chemi,  the 
land  of  this  same  founder  of  Chemmis.  The  word  Chemi,  in  ancient 
and  modern  Coptic,  conveys  the  two  ideas  of  heat  and  blackness. 
Similar  roots  with  the  samo  double  meaning  are  found  in  Arabic, 
Syriac,  and  Hebrew.  The  Hebrew  word  Chum  is  proposed  by 
Fuerst  as  the  root  of  Achumai,  the  initial  Aleph  being  prosthetic. 
It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  symbol  of  Ahom  is  the  vulture  or 
eagle,  and  Gyps,  the  black  vulture,  has  often  been  supposed  a  part 
of  the  name  Aegypt,  while  the  word  Ahom  represents  it.  It  is  also 
worthy  of  remark  that  another  name  for  the  Cheops  of  Herodotus  is 
Chembes  or  Chemmis.'*  For  a  similar  transformation,  I  may  instance 
the  Latin  Cupid  as  the  homonym  of  the  Sanscrit  Cama.  We  have 
thus  five  pairs  of  words  serving  to  illiistrate  the  identity  of  Ahumai 
and  ^gyptus  : 

Coptos.  .(Egypt.  Cheops.  Gypt.  Cupid. 

Chemmis.         Chemi.  Chemmis.         Ahom.         Cama. 

In  proceeding  to  identify  these  two  names,  I  need  hardly  apologize 
for  introducing  Persian  connections.  I  have  already  pointed  out 
what  Herodotus,  Diodorus,  and  other  Greek  writers  so  plainly  state, 
that  from  Chemmis  came  ^gyptus,  Danaus  and  Perseus,  their 
descendant,  the  head  of  the  Persian  line."  Nor  are  confirmations 
of  these  statements  wanting.  A  simple  method  of  proof,  allowing 
the  possibility  of  a  Persian  connection,  lies  in  an  enquiry  into  the 
Bible  relations  of  the  name  Achumai.  The  nearest  word  to  Achumai 
is  Achmetha,  the  name  of  a  city  mentioned  in  Ezra  vi.  2.  The 
final  tha,  which  distinguishes  this  word  from  Achumai,  is  a  particle 
denoting  place  in  many  languages.  In  Hebrew  we  find  Helek, 
Atarah,  Maarah  becoming  Helkath,  Ataroth,  Maarath,  while  Aiath, 
Kehelatha,  Zeredatha,  and  similar  words  testify  to  the  same.     We 

»  Diod.  Slo.,  1.  63. 

»  The  Fharauh  of  the  Bacodu*.    Canadian  Journal,  VoL  xlii,  No.  1. 


find  it  also  in  the  change  of  the  word  Chem  to  Copt.  Chemt  is 
almost  unpronounceable,  and  .would  soon  become  Chebt.  To  return, 
however,  to  Achmetha.  Our  English  version  of  Ezra,  perfectly 
trustworthy  here,  renders  it  as  Ecbatana,  but  places  in  the  margin, 
the  conjectural  reading,  "  in  a  coffer  or  chest."  The  Greek  equiva- 
lent of  the  Aramaic  Achmetha,  Hebrew  Chemeth,  a  coffer,  is  Kibotos, 
and  that  is  the  name  of  the  ark  in  which  the  scattered  limbs  of 
Osiris,  which  were  brought  to  Chemmis,  or  Coptos,  were  placed.  The 
words  Achmetha  and  Ecbatana  are  really  the  same,  in  spite  of  the 
vast  difference  of  their  appearance.  The  change  of  an  rn  into  a  b 
(one  of  the  commonest  of  all  changes  in  etymology),  and  the  affix  of 
another  Persian  particle  denoting  a  place  (ana),  account  for  the 
variation.  Ecbatana,  however,  in  Persian  is  HagToatan,  and  is  the 
town  of  the  Persian  Achaemenes  or  Djemschid,"  the  great  solar 
hero,  whom  Guigniaut  and  others  have  identified  with  the  Ahom  or 
Khem  of  the  Egyptians."  The  sawing  of  Djemschid  in  two  simply 
represents  the  division  of  the  Egyptian  Empire  in  his  reign. 
Whether  we  ti-anslate  Achmetha  as  Ecbatana  or  Kibotos,  we  still 
find  an  -^gyptus  in  our  Achumai,  and  in  the  former  case  identify 
him  with  the  head  of  the  Achaemenian  Persians.  We  do  not 
wonder  that  Cambyses,  when  in  Egypt,  claimed  to  be  descended  from 
its  ancient  kings,  and  those  of  a  Horite  ptock." 

Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  settles  at  once,  in  few  words,  the  question 
which  has  vexed  many  students  of  Biblical  antiquities — "  Wlience 
came  the  Caphtorim'?"  The  majority  of  writers,  like  Hitzig,  have 
taxed  their  ingenuity  to  bring  them  from  Crete  along  with  the 
Cherethit«8.  Now  the  Cherethites  of  Palestine  never  saw  Crete.  It 
was  doubtless  a  late  stage  of  their  progress  that  brought  a  handful  of 
them  to  that  island.  Some  of  the  Caphtorim  formed  part  of  that 
migration.  But  these  matters  do  not  concern  us  at  present.  One 
of  the  names  of  Coptos,  as  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  has  shewn,  is  Kebt- 
Hor,  a  form  like  Ahom-ra."  It  was  the  Coptos  of  the  Horites. 
Kebt-Hor  is  the  Caphtor  of  the  Bible,  and  the  earliest  city  of  that 

n  Rawlingon's  Herodotus,  Book  i.,  Ch.  98,  Note  2.  See  also  Book  HI.,  Ch.  SO,  Note  6.  Tim 
Peralan  B,  for  which  the  Oieeks  had  no  real  equivalent,  their  own  B  having  the  sound  of  V, 
was  replaced  naturally  enough  by  the  labial  most  akin  to  H,  M. 

n  Guigniaut,  11.  116,  189. 

**  Lenormant  and  Chevalier,  11.  97. 

*«  Rawllnson's  Herodotus,  Book  li.,  Ch.  15,  Note  5.  AUo  App.,  Book  11.,  Ch.  8,  (ISUi.  10th, 
4nd  17th  dynasties)  Note. 


name.  From  it  came  the  Caphtorim,  whom  the  Scriptures,  without 
the  slightest  ambiguity,  derive  from  Egypt."*  The  Caphtorim  invaded 
Palestine  before  the  Israelites  entered  the  land,  yet,  strange  to  say, 
we  read  of  no  settlements  of  this  people,  nor  are  they  spoken  of  as  a 
nation  at  the  time  of  Israel's  occupation. 

The  genealogy  of  the  sons  of  Shobal  says  nothing  of  the  Caph- 
torim ;  but  it  mentions  that  Aohumai,  and  perhaps  Lahad,  were  the 
heads  of  the  families  of  the  Zorathites,  whom  we  have  found  to  be 
the  same  as  the  Zareathites.  The  root  of  this  name  is  Zirah,  the 
hornet ;  on  this  point  thei'e  is  and  can  be  no  doubt.  An  Egyptian 
traveller  in  Palestine  speaks  of  a  town  (Jailed  Zorah,  a  'place  of 
hornets,  concerning  which  he  says  that  the  inhabitants  were  hornets 
by  name  and  by  nature."  The  Zirah  or  hornet  (Exodus  xxiii.  28, 
Deut.  vii.  20,  Joshua  xxiv.  12,)  whom  God  by  the  lips  of  Moses 
promised  to  send  before  his  people  to  drive  out  the  Hivite,  the 
Canaanite,  and  the  Hittite,  was  no  valiant  insect  even  in  countless 
swarms,  but  a  race  of  men  of  high  lineage  and  great  martial  prowess, 
the  descendants  of  Shobal  the  Horite,  and  the  Caplitorim,  who  took 
their  name  from  Shobal's  great  grandson,  Achumai.  It  would  be 
strange  indeed  if  any  insect  pest,  according  to  the  ordinary  laws  of 
nature  and  the  Divine  working,  should  force  great  nations  out  of 
cities  walled  up  to  heaven.  Neither  did  the  Israelites  find  in 
Palestine  a  deserted  land,  but  one  full  of  towns,  well  peopled,  and 
great  armies,  weakened  doubtless,  but  not  destroyed,  by  the  hornet 
invasion.  In  Dor  and  Endor,  and  many  neighbouring  places,  these 
Zorathites  (for  they  are  the  Dorians,  and  Palestme  their  Pelopon- 
nesus— the  home  of  their  fathers  which  they  returned  to  conquer — • 
as  Mazocchi  shrewdly  guesses),"  long  maintained  their  independence, 
and  in  time  passed  on  to  other  lands,  to  be  numbered  among  the  most 
warlike  of  the  peoples  of  the  earth.  We  may  now  see  a  reason  for  the 
mention  of  apparently  minute  particulars  regarding  this  branch  of  the 
human  family  in  the  Book  of  Chronicles.  I  may  add  that  the  hornet 
appears  on  the  crest  of  the  Egyptian  kings  of  tha  Horite  family. 

VI. — Reminiscences   of   the   Hohites,  and  confirmation  ov 


»  Gen.  X.  14  ;  Deut.  ii.  23 ;  Jereni.  xlvii.  4  ;  Amos  ix.  7. 

**  Cliabas,  Voyage  d'uu  Egyptieu,  quoted  by  Lenortnant  and  Chevalier,  IL  100.    This  plao* 
must  have  been  Dora. 
n  Anthon'g  Claasioal  Dictionary ;  Art.  Pae8tiun, 



India,  Asia  Minor,  Greece,   Italy,  and  of  the  Celtic  and 
German  peoples. 

Phoenicia. — We  have  already  seen  that  the  Phcenicians  are  a 
Horite  stock,  not  in  the  line  of  Shobal  but  of  Ezer,  the  father  of 
Akan.  In  him  we  must  find  the  Isiris  of  Sanchoniatho,  called  by 
him  erroneously  the  brother  of  Chna,  who  was  the  first  to  be  named 
a  Phoenician.  Now  C  ina  I  make  Akan,  and  not,  as  the  semi-Hebrew 
later  Phoenicians  said,  Canaan,  Akan  becomes  Chna  by  the  proper 
pi'onunciation  of  the  initial  ayin,  for  which,  as  in  the  Arabic,  I  have 
always  vindicated  a  sound  approaching  that  of  g,  the  correctness  of 
which  appears  in  the  Septuagint  very  frequently  rendering  ayin  by 
gamnia.  Gakan  would  be  more  like  the  true  form  of  the  name  of 
the  son  of  Ezer  than  Akan  or  Jaakan.  This  form  gives  us  the  swan 
of  Canaan,  one  of  its  insignia,  being  identical  with  the  Latin  cygnus, 
Greek  Kuxvtx;.  Let  the  unshemitic  vowels  be  removed,  and  we  have 
at  once,  with  slight  reduplication,  the  Chnas,  gi"en  as  the  ancestor  of 
the  Phoenicians ;  and  this  Chnas  or  Akan  we  find  coming  from  the 
.  shore  of  the  Red  Sea,  according  to  the  ancient  tradition  of  the  origin 
of  the  builders  of  Tyre  and  Sidon.  He  is  their  first  king,  Agenor 
or  Akan  the  Horite.  I  reserve  much  that  I  have  to  say  under  this 
head  for  a  future  paper  on  the  Phoenicians.  Thabion,  the  Phoenician 
teacher,  who  led  people  astray,  may  have  had  the  same  name,  if  he 
be  not  the  same  person  as  Zibeon,  the  next  to  Shobal  among  the  sons 
of  Seir.**  Shobal  seems  to  be  lost  in  the  Phoenician  story,  unless 
Asbolus,  who  is  obscurely  mentioned  as  the  same  with  Coum,  or 
Achumai  or  Khem,  the  son  of  Belus  and  nephew  of  Canaan,  father 
of  the  Phoenicians,  and  Mestraim  father  of  the  Egyptians,  be  he." 
But  the  Cronus  or  Time  which  represents  him,  or  that  he  represents 
in  the  Egyptian  mythology  aa  Seb,  in  Sanchoniatho  is  applied  to  his 
son,  Ilus  or  Alvan,  the  brother  of  Onam  or  Dagon,  the  husband  of 
Rhea  (a  word  which  is  simply  the  Reaiah,  Roeh  or  Ra,  by  which  the 
eldest  of  the  Shobalians  is  known),  and  the  father  of  Jehid  or  Jeoud. 
Sanchoniatho  plainly  says  that  he  went  into  Egypt,  but  did  not 
reign  there,  his  kingdom  being  in  Talestine.  The  story  of  Sanchon- 
iatho is  a  venerable  record  of  primeval  history,  somewhat  obscure  and 
corrupted,  yet  of  inestimable  valae. 

M  Banchoulatbo'g  Plicen.  Hist.  05,  343  uni    Cumbsrland  with  a  totally  different  end  in  view 
finds  that  Thabion  is  a  Oreeic  form  of  ,m  .id^  r  Znhhn. 
*•  Saucliuniatlio's  Fhoeo.  Hist.,  116. 


Chaldcea. — The  Iliis  of  Sanchoniatho  and  the  II  or  Ra  of  Babylonia 
are  generally  allowed  to  be  the  same."*  In  th«  ancient  Belus  of  that 
early  empire,  not  that  he  really  ruled  in  whai  is  known  as  Babylonia, 
but  his  descendants,  we  have  Alvan  as  II  with  the  Coptic  aiticle  in  a 
softened  form  prefixed,  forming, as  I  ha-.e  elsewhere  shown,  the  word 

Baal,  which  is  simply  7^  with  an  initial  3.  As  for  Ninus,  he  is, 
doubtless,  a  nunnated  Onam,  and  the  same  as  Anu,  Cannes  or  Dagon, 
the  Onnos,  whose  descendants  were  driven  from  Egypt  into  Babylonia. 
This  is,  indeed,  the  derivation  given  in  all  ancient  records  of  Cannes 
and  his  family.*"    The  god  of  Assyria  is  Asshur,  and  in  him  we  have* 

I  am  persuaded,  a  reminiscence  of  the  Egyptian  Usecheres  or  Ashchur, 
his  son  Achashtari  or  Sesostris  being  the  Chaldean  Xisuthrus,  as  I 
hope  yet  to  have  an  opportunity  of  proving  at  length." 

Arabia. — One  of  the  regions  in  which  most  naturally  we  should 
be  inclined  to  look  for  traces  of  the  Hoiites,  is  Arabia.  In  the 
mythology  and  early  history  of  that  country  we  accordingly  find 
them.  An  old  god  known  to  the  Greeks  is  Dusares,  otherwise  Dhu- 
Sair.**  The  word  Dhu  signifies  Lord,  and  Sair  gives  us  the  Bible 
name  Seir.  Connected  with  him  is  Hobal,  a  god  whose  woi-ship  Avaa 
brought  from  the  region  of  Syria  Sobal,  and  who  is  the  same  as  Aud, 
being  the  Cronus  or  Seb  of  the  Arabians."  The  people  of  Aud  or 
Hobal  are  the  original  inhabitants  of  Irem,  in  which  we  find  Jearim, 
the  Kirjath  or  villages  of  which  Shobal  and  his  family  inhabited.** 
Intimately  allied  to  Aud  or  Hobal,  as  his  sons  and  descendants,  are 

II  or  Dhucalyan,  Monat,  Shedad,  Yaguth,  Lokman  and  Lud.  In  H, 
Calyan  and  Dhucalyan,  we  find  Allan,  the  power  of  the  initial  ayin 
appearing  in  the  second,  and  the  princely  Dhu  preceding  it  in  the 
third.     Monat,  though  a  name  generally  applied  to  a  goddess,  as  ia 

w»  The  Greek  form  Illinos  given  by  Damoscius,  and  with  whicli  Sir  Henry  Rawlinsnil 
(Bawlinson's  Herodotus,  App.  Blc.  i.,  Essay  10,  2,  (111)  ),  connects  the  Babylonian  Il-enu,  is 
more  like  Alvan  or  Allan.  Ouigniaut  says  Holon  or  £1  is  the  oriental  Cronus.  (Religions  de 
rantiqulti,  il.  897.) 

*"  Cory's  Ancient  Fragments,  22,  31. 

«  The  Rev.  W.  B.  Galloway  (Egypt's  Record.  15'/)  identifies  Xisuthrus  and  Sesostris.  Whiston 
in  Josephus  (Ant.  I.  2,  3)  also  identifies  Seth  and  Sesotris.  Seth,  SUetli  or  Ashtar,  tlie  deity  of 
the  Egyptian  Shepherds,  is  tlie  same.  So  is  the  Persian  Tasliter  and  the  Indian  Tvashtar  or 
Batyavrata.  The  stories  connected  with  all  these  names  recall  an  ancient  deluge,  ami  a  warAiro 
with  a  Horitc  line.  The  children  of  Bheth  (Numbers  xxiv.  17),  connected  in  Balakm's  prophecy 
with  Moab,  are  of  this  ancestry. 

«<  Guigniaut,  iii.  019. 

**  Sale's  Koran,  Preliminary  Discourse.  Guigniaut  iL  874.   Lenormant  and  CheTAller,  U.  851. 

**  Sale's  Koran,  Preliminary  Discourse. 


the  case  of  Neith,  gives  us  Manahath.  Shedad  is  Dagon  or  Onam. 
Close  to  On,  or  perhaps  the  same  place,  is  Fostat,  which  is  simply  a 
form  of  Shedad  with  the  Coptic  article  prefixed,  and  meaning,  like 
On,  the  strong  city.  Again,  Dagon  is  the  divinity  of  Ashdod  in 
Philistia,  which  is  of  the  same  root  as  Shedad.  Shedad  plainly  is  a 
translation  and  not  a  corruption  of  the  word  Onam.  For  the  con- 
nection of  Shedad  and  Alvan  I  quote  the  authority  of  Hyde,  who 
Bays  that  Shedad,  the  son  of  Aud,  sent  Dahak  the  Arab,  the  son  of 
his  brother  Ulvanus,  against  Djemschid.**  The  historical  statement 
is  false,  inasmuch  as  Djemschid  was  the  son  of  this  Dahak,  if,  as  is 
most  likely,  he  be  Jachath  son  of  Alvan,  but  the  connection  of  Alvan 
and  Onam  as  Shedad  in  the  son  of  the  former,  is  valuable.  The 
Phcenician  history  of  Sanchoniatho  mentions  a  Sadid  as  a  son  of  ilus. 
Anotlier  representative  of  this  family  is  Yaguth,  who  is  Jachath, 
and  ,  3  very  properly  is  the  supreme  divinity  of  the  Dhukailite 
Arabs,**  the  sons  of  Dhu-Calyan.  Of  the  Adite  line  descended  from 
Hobal,  a  prominent  member  is  Lokman.  He  is  Lubad  or  Gypt,  </te 
vulture  man,  and  presents  to  us  Achumai,  Ahom  or  Achaemenes, 
with  the  prefix  somewhat  disguised  of  the  Arabic  article  Al.  The 
head  of  the  Achsemenian  Persians  was  said  to  have  been  nursed  by 
an  eagle  or  vulture,  and  Lokman  is  simply  Al  Achsemenes.  Lubad 
is  a  form  like  Al  Gypt,  without  the  strong  power  of  the  cheth,  rising 
from  Ahumai  rather  than  Achumai.  He  and  his  followers  are 
reported  to  have  been  transformed  into  monkeys,  the  reverse  of  Mr. 
Darwin's  hypothesis,  and  a  tradition  that  we  shall  yet  meet  with  in 
other  lands."  To  the  above  may  be  added  Lud,  the  Arab,  whose 
descendant  Askelos  founded  the  city  of  Ascalon,  and  who  is 
undoubtedly  the  Lahad  that  gave  to  some  of  tlit  Egyptians  the 
name  of  Lud.  He  also  is  an  Adite  of  Hobal,  Among  the  kings  of 
Egypt,  whom  the  Arabs  claim,  are  Kabus  and  his  brother  Al  Walid. 
These  may  be  Achumai  and  Lahad,  the  first  in  the  form  which  we 
find  in  Cheops.  Saba  or  Abd  Shems  (the  servant  of  the  sun),  a  very 
old  Arabian  king,  I  think  may  be  Shobal,  and  his  son  Cahlan,  Alvan, 

«  Hyde,  Religlo  Vet.  Pers.  183. 

4*  Bauier,  La  Mythologie  et  les  Fables  oxpliqueea  par  I'histoire,  i.  628  seq.  Katl  or  Cayl  li  a 
title  of  authority  similar  to  Dhu,  and  is  doubtless  a  form  of  (al  or)  II,  giving  the  full  force  of 
the  initial  ayin.  Tlie  people  of  Kliaulan  who  worship  II  take  their  name  from  Alvan.  The 
■olar  deity  Dhu  Kolosa  is  the  lord  of  Elusa  or  Khulasa,  the  highest  in  heaven  (Coelurn)  or 
BIysium.    Eleusla  is  the  same  word. 

V  Sale's  Koran,  Preliminary  Discourse.    Lenormant  and  Chevalier,  11.  299. 


especially  as  in  Shobal  we  lia,ve  the  head  of  a  pre-eminently  solar 
line.  A  better  acquaintance  with  the  older  Arabian  historians  would 
enable  me  to  apeak  more  decidedly  npon  this  point. 

Connected  with  the  Arabian  are  the  Talmudical  legends.  Some 
of  these  treat  of  Kabil,  the  head  of  the  Deevs  or  demons.  Kabil,  as 
we  shall  yet  see,  is  Shobal,  associated  in  other  mythologies  with 
these  same  Deevs.  The  great  enemy  of  the  Deevs  is  Seth,  not  the 
son  of  Adam,  but  the  Egyptian  Sheth  or  Aahtar,  whom  we  have 
already  found  at  enmity  with  the  H6rite  family."  The  Chemosh  of 
Moab  is  in  all  probability  the  Khem  of  Egypt  and  Caraa  of  India, 
Achumai  the  son  of  Jachath.** 

Pfima.— Persia  is  the  great  Aryan  land,  an  early  name  of  which 
was  Haroiou,  the  same  word  as  Haroeh.^  Its  ancient  history  tells 
us  that  the  first  king  who  ruled  in  the  earth  after  the  great  flo6d  or 
destruction  was  Gil-shah  or  Kaiomers.  He  was  called  Abul-Muluk, 
or  the  father  of  kings."  This  Gil  or  Gil-shah  furnishes  us  with  the 
name  II  or  Alvan,  the  full  power  of  the  initial  ayin  appearing  in  it ', 
and  he  is  the  Abimelech  who  ruled  in  Gerar  immediately  after  the 
destruction  of  the  Cities  of  the  Plain."*  Connected  with  him  is 
Menoutchehr,  the  Egyptian  Menes  or  Manahath  the  Horite,  whose 
name  on  the  mon>iments  is  Month-Hor.  His  son  Nawder  is  a 
Neith-ra,  and  perhaps  the  Naater  of  the  tablets.  The  Persian 
goddess  Nahid  is  Neith  or  Nahath.  We  have  already  found  that 
Djemschid  or  Achsemenes  of  the  line  of  Gil-shah  is  Achumai.  I 
have  strong  reasons,  however,  for  making  him  the  same  aa  Kai  Kobad, 
supposed  to  be  a  later  Persian  king,  as  I  will  yet  show  when  treating 
of  the  Greek  connections,"  In  Kai  Kobad  we  have  the  Copt  or 
^gyptus  already  identified  with  Achumai.    Lohurasp  or  Aurvada^pa 

*»  Baring  Gould's  Legends  of  Old  Testament  Characters,  6V. 

«  Sir  G&rdnor  Williinson,  A  Popular  Account  of  the  Ancient  EgyptiRUS,  i.  280. 

W  Rawlinaon's  Herodotus,  App.  Bk.  i.  Essay  xi.  s.  14. 

»i  Russell's  Connection  of  Sacred  and  Profane  History,  ii.  28.    London :  Tegg. 

"♦  Oilshah  or  Abimelech  is  probably  the  Abimelech  of  Abraliam,  who  ruled  iu  Oerar,  hia 
town,  called  after  himself,  being  the  Elusa  of  Ptolemy  and  otliers,  now  called  by  the  Arab! 
El-Khulasa,  thus  shewing  the  power  of  the  ayin.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that,  although  the 
name  Elusa  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  the  Arabic  version  in  Genesis  xx.  1,  2,  for  Gerar 
reads  Bl-Khulus,  "as  if  referring  it  to  Elusa."  Robinson's  Biblical  Researches,  i.  202.  Thie 
il  plainly  the  original  of  the  Greek  Eleusis,  as  well  as  of  Elysium  and  Coelum,  the  Rarian 
plain  near  it  being  the  region  of  Aroer,  not  far  ftwm  Elusa.  The  first  monarchy  after  the 
destruction  of  the  Cities  of  the  Plain  was  that  of  Oerar.  The  extensive  and  exceedingly 
ancient  ruins  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Elusa  point  to  a  far  distant  and  high  oivUiwtion. 

**  Vide  Shah  Nameh  for  this  and  other  partioulars  in  Fe.iian  History. 


is  plainly  a  later  Horus,  who  appears  on  the  Egyptian  monuments  M 
a  successor  of  Achumai.  As  for  Fcridun,  he  belongs  to  a  different 
line,  his  ancestor  Shah-Giliv  being  a  Bible  Caleb,  the  form  of  the 
Persian  connecting  with  -lEsculapius,  and  the  Aiskulabita  of  the 
Book  of  Nabathean  Agiioulture. 

India. — I  am  not  by  any  means  the  first  to  connect  Seb  and  Siva. 
Si\  "  marries  Iswara,  and  of  him  are  Hani,  Hari,  and  the  seven 
mothers  of  the  earth,  the  Harits.  He  is  the  great  Deev  like  Kabil, 
and  the  seven  Harits  carry  him.  He  is  the  sun,  and  also,  like  Seb 
and  Hobal,  Cronus,  although  this  title  is  often  given  to  his  son  Cala 
or  Caliya,  who  is  II,  Has  or  Alvan,  with  the  full  power  of  the  initial 
ayin,  and  corresponds  to  the  Persian  Gilshah.  The  haunt  of  Siva 
and  Caliya  is  Cailasa,  which  is  Elusa  or  Khulasa  in  the  Geraritio 
region  of  Palestine,  over  which  Abimelech  ruled.  Vaivaswat,  the 
Bon  of  Caliya,  is  not  very  like  Jachath ;  nevertheless,  I  am  persuaded 
that  it  is  the  same  word,  the  Vivaghat  of  the  Persian  being  identical, 
and  merely  requiring  the  prefix  of  the  Coptic  article  with  redupli- 
cation to  complete  it.  Vaivaswat  is  stUl  the  sun,  and  is  the  father 
of  Yama,  whom  numberless  writei-s  have  identified  with  the  Egyptian 
Ahom  and  the  Persian  Achasmenes."  Yama's  domain  is  the  south 
and  dai'k  region.  Gopt  is  one  of  his  attendants,  or  rather  he,  as 
Gopt,  is  an  attendant  of  Siva.  Siva  himself  is  called  Gopati,  which 
is  Coptus  and  ^gyptus.  Siva's  son  is  Cartikeya,  but  Pococke  has 
found  him  in  Kerkestes,  son  of  ^gyptus."  A  daughter  of  this  line 
is  Times,  in  whom  is  represented  the  female  name  Ahmes,  so  common 
in  Upper  Egyptian  records.  She  is  Durga,  but  Durga  is  Zirah  the 
hornet,  for  its  second  letter  is  ayin,  hence  Zirga.  In  the  .<3Eolic 
Greek  the  change  of  z  to  d  is  exceedingly  common.  A  better  con- 
nection still  for  the  Zorathites  of  Shobal's  line  is  found  in-  the  full 
name  of  an  early  Indian  monarch,  who  appears  in  the  Riimayana, 
Dasaratha,  king  of  Oude,  or  of  the  Aud  people.  Zorathi  and 
Dasaratha  are  the  same,  although  I  do  not  think  that  any  Pharaoh 
bore  this  generic  title.  Lakshman  and  Bama  are  his  sons,  the 
former  giving  the  Arab  Lokman,  and  connecting  with  the  monkey 
race  that  built  the  bridge  of  stones  by  which  Rama  passed  to  Ceylon 
from  the  mainland,  just  as  Lokman  is  one  of  the  monkey  Adites. 
Rama  at  once  recalls  the  Rameses  who  descended  from  Achumai. 

M  Uuigiiiuut,  il.  116.    Cama  or  Cupid  the  same  as  Kheui ;  i,  297. 
M  India  iu  Qreece,  SO. 


Raraa  is  himself  an  incarnation  of  Siva  ;  and  a  later  Parastiraraa,  or 
Kama  with  the  axe,  is  the  Greek  Perseus.  The  enemy  of  Siva  or 
Mahadeva,  the  great  Deev,  is  Mahiasura,  the  great  Asura,  in  whom 
appears  Ashcur  or  UsechereB,  the  father  of  Ashtari,  Ashtar  or  Sheth. 
Another  Indian  stoiy  furnishes,  in  a  somewhat  disguised  form,  the 
names  of  several  members  of  the  Shobalian  family.  Shobal  himself 
is  Kapila,  a  form  like  the  Talmudical  Kabil.  Kalyana  and  Roja, 
descended  from  him,  are  Alvan  or  Reaiah,  and  Mandhatu  is  plainly 
Manahath,  while  the  unfortunate  and  wicked  Chetiya  represents  the 
unhappy  and  cruel  Jachath.'*  Menu,  Manu  Swayambhu,  the  fertile 
cow  Sabala,  and  many  other  mythological  characters,  belong  to  the 
same  Horite  story.  Different  tribes  have  preserved  the  same  narra- 
tive in  different  forms,  both  as  regards  fact  and  the  orthography  of 
propel'  names. 

Asia  Minor. — I  have  already  claimed  for  the  famous  city  of  Ilium 
a  connection  with  Ilus  or  Alvan,  a  connection  favoured  by  Bishop 
Cumberland.**  The  Atys  of  Phrygia  gives  us,  in  his  mournful  story, 
a  vei'sion  of  the  history  of  Jahath  or  Jachath,  called  Ati  upon  the 
Egyptian  monuments.  He  is  a  solar  divinity  like  Jahath,  is  born 
of  the  stones  cast  behind  them  by  Deucalion  and  Pyrrha  (Dhu 
Calyan"*  and  Phre,  a  Ra  or  Rhea,  w^ith  the  prefix  of  the  Coptic 
article),  and  is  the  first  of  the  Galli,  or  priests  of  the  Sun,  a  word 
which  is  simply  a  plural  of  the  Gil  fonn  of  Alvan's  name.  He  is 
called  Papas,  and  a  striking  coincidence  appears  in  the  fact  that  the 
Egyptian  king  is  termed  Ati  or  Pepi.*'  The  Cnppadocians,  often 
thought  to  be  the  Caphtorim,  are  truly  a  family  of  Copts."*  They 
were  an  unmixed  people,  fond  of  independence,  and  distinguished 
from  others  as  the  White  Syrians.  It  is  in  Lydia,  however,  that  we 
look  for  the  Horite  family.  This  country  had  intimate  relations 
with  Assyria  and  Palestine  it  is  generally  conceded,''  but  I  can 

M  Hardy's  Mnmial  of  Buddhiiui,  134. 

'0  haneliouiatho's  Plircn.  Uist.,  473. 

M*  The  value  of  the  k  in  Deukalion  is  at  once  known  by  the  fact  that  the  Irish  Declan,  who 
represents  Uim,  becomes  the  Welsh  Dylan.  The  ayin  of  Alvau  thus  apjiears.  Davies'  British 
Druids,  104. 

*T  On  this  all  EgyptologiRts  are  agreed, 

M  Vide  Gesenii  Thesaurum. 

M  Anthon's  Classical  Dictionary,  Art.  Lydia.  In  my  article  on  "  The  Cojitic  Element  In 
Languages  of  the  Indo-European  Family,"  (Canadian  Jotinial,  Dec,  1872,  p.  408),  I  have 
shewn  deolded  Arabian  connections  in  tlie  change  of  Aciamus  and  Atys  to  Alcimus  (Lokman) 
and  Alyattes,  and  in  the  preicnce  of  Sadyattcs  or  Shedad  in  the  LyUiau  dynasties, 


prove  a  still  more  intimate  connection  with  Egypt.  A  Lydian  name 
of  hoar  antiquity  is  Sipylua  or  Shobal.  The  oldest  king,  however, 
whose  name  is  recorded  is  Manes,  who  seems  to  reappear  as  the 
Maeon  of  Phrygia  in  the  story  of  Atys.  Manes  is  Menes  and 
Manahath.  His  son  is  variously  oalled  Atys  or  Cotys.  This  is  a 
mistake  very  likely  to  be  made,  Atys  or  Cotys  being  the  nephew  of 
Manahath,  but  ruling  in  Egypt  as  he  did,  while  Alvan  remained  in 
Palestine.  Atys  or  Cotys  is  Jachath.  The  sons  of  Atys  are  Lydus 
and  Torybus.  The  former  is  Lahad.  The  latter  is  a  word  obscurely 
connecting  with  Achumai  a?  the  head  of  the  Zorathites.  We  have 
a  better  name  for  him  in  the  Aciamus,  under  whom  Ascalus  built 
Ascalon  according  to  Lydian  tradition.*"  Now  Ascalus  in  the  Arab 
story  is  a  man  of  Ludim  of  Ad,  and  Lud  is  Lahad,  the  brother  of 
Achumai.  The  relations  of  Moab  and  the  line  of  Shobal  we  have 
already  seen  to  be  intimate,  as  Syria  Sobal  forms  part  of  Moab,  the 
image  of  the  god  Hobal  came  from  that  region,  and  Khem  or 
Afhumai  is  Chemosh,  the  Moabite  god.  But  Mopsus,  who  is 
Moab,  and  Sipylus,  who  is  Shobal,  are  represented  as  drowning 
Ichthys,  the  son  of  Atargatis,  in  a  lake  near  Ascalon."*  In  Attis, 
Sabus  and  Minotaurus,  so  closely  joined  by  Guigniaut,  we  find  the 
three  names  Shobal,  Manahath  and  Jahath."^  Although  not  in  Asia 
Minor,  I  may  mention  in  this  place  the  solar  line  of  Colchis,  includ- 
ing two  forms  of  Jachath  or  the  Egyptian  Ati  and  Hekt.  These 
are  Aeetes  and  Hecate.  The  temple  of  Jupiter  Actseus  at  lolcos 
also  commemorates  Jachath. 

Greece.- — Among  the  islands,  Crete  is  worthy  of  attention.  There 
Minos  is  said  to  have  ruled,  and  in  him  we  see  Menes  and  Manahath. 
The  labyrinth  agreeing  with  that  of  Mendes,'*  and  the  Minotaur, 
which  is  Mouth-Hor  or  the  Persian  Menoutchehr,  confirm  the 
identification.  The  Egyptian  origin  of  Khadamantus,  the  presence 
of  Cherethites  or  Creti  in  the  south  of  Palestine,  and  a  town 
Minois  near  Gaza,  are  more  than  sufficient  evidence  of  the  trans- 
mission of  the  old  Egyptian  history  to  the  island  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean." The  names  of  Deucalion  (Dhu  Calyan)  and  Androgeus 
(Nawder  or  Naater)  in  the  Cretan  genealogies  are  also  worthy  of  note. 

*o  Xantbus  ap.  Creuzerl  Fragmenta. 
«  Oulgniaut,  ii.  944. 

n  Diod.  Sic.  i.  01,  66.    Btrab.  xviL  1,  42. 
«  Vmo  HiUig,  die  FhlUitaer. 


Of  .scarcely  less  importance  than  the  history  of  Crete  is  that  of 
Rhodes."  Its  line  is  one  of  Heliads,  a  solar  line.  The  sons  of 
Helius,  who  is  Ilns  or  Alvan,  fled  on  account  of  a  deluge,  •which 
reminds  us  of  that  of  Oilshah,  to  other  lands.  Among  them,  Actia 
went  to  On  or  Heliopolis  in  Egypt,  .and  taught  the  Egyptians 
astrology.  Who  can  fail  to  recognise  Jachath  1  Another  is  Ochime, 
whose  name  preserves  more  purely  than  any  other  the  original  form 
Achumai.  His  daughter  Cydippe  married  Cercaphus,  anotlier 
Heliad,  whom  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  identify.  From  tliis 
union  sprang  Lindus,  Jalyssus  and  Camirus,  the  ecjuivalents  of 
which  I  have  not  found.  But  in  Cercaphus  I  recognise  a  head  of 
the  Cercopes,  who  infested  Lydia  in  the  time  of  Omphale,  and  whom 
Hercules  changed  into  apes.  Thus  we  have  three  traditions — the 
Arab,  the  Indian,  and  the  Lydian  forming  about  Achumai  as  a 
centre.  The  narrative  of  Diodorus  Siculus  takes  some  of  the 
Heliades  to  Tabor  in  Palestine,  although  to  him  it  is  the  Rhodian 
Atabyris.  Ritter  holds  that  Tabor  is  the  original  of  the  Rhodian 
name.'*  Some  distance  to  the  north  of  this  mountain  and  westward 
on  the  sea-coast  is  Ecdippa,  commemorating' the  name  of  Ochirae's 
daughter,  and  close  beside  Ecdippa  is  Ummah,  a  memorial  of  himself. 
Cercaphus  may  survive  in  an  Acrabbi  (or  Gecrabbi  giving  the  force 
of  the  ayin)  lying  near  Carmel,  which  at  least  one  writer  has  iden- 
tified with  Camirus. 

In  Bceotia  we  meet  with  Actteon,  the  brother  of  a  Hecate,  who  was 
torn  to  pieces  by  his  dogs,  just  as  Jachath  or  Achthoes  was  killed  by 
his  own  guards,  who  should  have  defended  him.  His  story  is  made 
a  parallel  to  that  of  Atys,  son  of  Croesus,  accidentally  slain  by  his 
attendant.*'  In  the  same  country,  of  which  Thebes,  a  reminiscence 
of  an  Egyptian  Thebes,  was  the  capital,  Sipylus  (Shobal)  and 
Minytus  (Manahath)  are  numbered  among  the  sons  of  Amphion  and 
Niobe."  Amphion  is  the  son  of  Epopeus  (Apoi)his)  and  Antiope 
(Neith-pe),  while  Antiope  is  the  daughter  of  Nycteus  (Ma-Nachath). 
A  form  resembling  Nycteus,  in  the  absence  of  the  initial  M,  is 
Antaeus,  whom  Hercules  slew  in  Egypt.  Actieus,  the  ancient  king 
of  Attica,  preceding  Cecrops,  probably  Cercaphus,  is  Jachath  or 
Achthoes,  whose  dominions,  after  the  capti'.i«  of  On,  would  extend 

«♦  Diod.  Sic.  V.  JSS,  seq. 

0*  Die  VorhaUo  Europiilscher  Volkergeschiehtcn  339,  seq. 

«o  IMml.  Sic.  iv.  81,  seq. 

«■  ApoUodorl,  iii.  5,  6. 

to  Djebel  Attaka.  Echetus,  tlio  cruel  king  of  Epints,  may  be  a 
memory  of  the  same  date,  and  the  very  word  Echthos,  an  enemy,  a 
generalization  of  the  character  of  one  whose  early  death  cannot  atone 
for  his  wickedness.** 

It  is,  however,  in  the  gi'eat  family  of  the  Dorians  that  wo  must 
find  the  ancestoi's  of  the  Caphtorim  and  Zorathitos.  Their  history 
begins  with  a  deluge,  the  third  which  has  come  under  our  notice. 
This  deluge  I  have  good  authoi'ity  for  placing  "  the  borders  of 
Egypt.***  It  is  that  of  Deucalion.  I  have  already  anticipated,  by 
taking  it  for  gi-anted,  that  Deucalion  is  the  Arab  Dhu-calyan.  He 
is  Alvan,  the  Deev.  A  like  name  from  a  place  in  the  same  Pales- 
tinian region,  the  town  of  Nyssa,  south  of  Gaza,  is  Dionysius,  a 
Dhu-Nyssa.  As  Gilshah,  Ave  have  found  Deucalion  ruling  at  Elusa, 
not  far  from  the  town  which  Diodorus  connects  with  the  Bacchic 
god.**  Him,  however,  for  the  present  we  must  dismiss.  Tlio  wife  of 
Deucalion  is  Pyn-ha,  the  Rhea  of  Ilus,  and  a  female  Egyptian  Phrah. 
The  son  of  Deucalion  is  Hellen.  Here  we  find  the  Dorian  annalists 
guilty  of  multiplication  l^ke  Manetho  and  his  Egyptian  predecessors, 
for  Hellen  and  Deu-calion  are  one,  the  former  replacing  by  a  simple 
aspirate  the  hard  initial  sound  of  the  latter,  made  necessary  by  the 
jjrefix  Deu.  Hellen  is  Allan,  and  the  original  Hellenes  are  the 
Alonim,  a  truly  royal  name.  Of  the  sons  of  Hellen,  we  must  dismiss 
.(^olus.  I  know  nothing  certainly  concerning  him.  Dorus  and 
Xuthus  remain.  The  fonner  appeal's  too  early.  The  latter  is 
Jachath.  Dorus  is  another  name  for  Achumai,  answering  in  a  mea- 
sure to  the  Torybus,  who  is  brother  of  Lydus.  The  Zorathites,  in 
the  form  Zorah,  furnish  the  Dorian  name  by  the  ^olic  change  of  z 
to  d.  Of  Apollo  and  Phthia,  a  purely  Egyptian  name,  answering  to 
Phthah,  while  Apollo  is  any  solar  personage,  came  Doras  and 
Laodocus,  and  these  are  the  solar  Achumai,  the  Zorathite,  and 
Lahad,  his  brother.  These  answer  to  Lydus  and  Toiybus  of  Atys  or 
Cotys.     The  daughter  of  Dorus  is  Xanthippe,  but  the  daughter  of 

•8  I  have  not  given  authonties  for]  this  Homeric-  and  similar  names  witli  tlieir  connected 
legends,  as  tliey  arc  accessible  in  any  good  classical  dictionary,  and  a  useless  list  of  references 
would  unnecessarily  swell  tlie  size  of  tlie  paper. 

w*  Hierouyui,  Chronicon  Eusebii.  It  is  true  tbat  tlie  deluge  of  Ogyges  (AgagJ  is  named 
instead  of  that  of  Deucalion,  but  it  is  plain  tliat  they  are  one,  for  Ogyjes  is  the  founder  of 
Eleusis,  which  is  Elusa  in  Gerar.  Africanus,  in  the  third  Book  of  his  Chronicle,  quoted  by 
Syncellus,  seems  to  speak  of  Ogyges  and  Actaous  as  if  one  person.  Now,  Acfcieus  is  Jachntli, 
son  of  Alvan  or  Deucalion. 

«»  Diod  Sic.  iv,  2. 


tho  Peraian  Kai  Kobad,  who  is  also  Aclmmai,  is  SenJaboli,  and  tho 
daughter  of  Ochime  ia  Cydippe,  It  is  utterly  impossible  that  this 
can  be  more  coincidence.  A  son  of  Dorus  is  Teutamas,  and  Toth- 
mosis  is  a  successor  of  Alinies  or  Achumai.  Tlie  mythic  ancestors  of 
the  Dorians  ia  ^gimius,  and  in  him  we  again  find  Achumai  ajipear- 
ing.  Dymas,  the  son  of  yEgimius,  is  but  a  shortened  form  of 
Teuttimas  of  Dorus,  and  Tothmosis  of  Ahmes.  Herodotus  rightly 
brings  the  Dorians  from  Egypt.  Mazocchi  correctly  traces  them  to 
Dor  and  P]ndor  and  similar  towns  south  of  Carmel.'"  Their  cities 
are  the  same  as  those  of  the  Heliads  of  Rhodes,  for  Helius  is  Hellen, 
Actis  Xuthus,  and  Ochime  ^gimius  or  Dorus.  Epidaurus  is  a  later 
form  of  Caphtor.  I  have  said  that  I  know  nothing  of  the  iEolians. 
Their  story  connects  intimately  with  that  of  the  Dorians,  and  it 
may  be  that  ^olus  is  also  Alvan.  Sisyphus  is  certamly  his  brother 
Shepho,  (Ebalus  is  Ebal,  and  (Enomaus  Onara,  Time  will  not  per- 
mit me  to  show  tho  extent  of  my  researches  in  connection  with  them. 

lUyria  may  here  engage  our  attention,  as  lying  between  Greece 
and  Italy.  I  should  never  have  been  induced,  had  not  other 
evidence  led  me  to  it,  to  divide  this  word  into  the  two  constituents 
II  and  Ra,  although  this  combination  is  justified  by  the  Chaldieau 
equivalent  of  Alvan,  Alorus.'^  The  Eneti,  or  descendants  of  Anah, 
we  have  already  seen  to  be  an  Illyrian  people.  In  Illyria,  were  also 
found  Oreitse  (Horites),  and  Dassaritao  (Zorathites),  a  name  which 
at  once  calls  to  remembrance  the  Indian  Dasaratha.  The  modern,  as 
well  as  the  ancient,  Albanians  are  the  people  of  Alvan,  and  their 
other  name  Skipetar,  as  well  as  their  town  Epidaunis,  represent  their 
old  home  in  Kebt-Hor  and  theii*  Bible  name  Caphtorim.  A  glance 
at  Illyrian  geography  will  fumiah  abundant  evidence  of  the  Horite 
ancestry  of  the  brave  Albanians. 

Italy. — Hyde  has  already,  in  the  Arabic  Sambula,  provided  a  com- 
mon ground  on  which  Sybil  and  Spica,  the  Hebrew  Shobal  and  the 
Egyptian  Sebek,  may  meet.  The  Sabine  god  Sabus,  ana  the  whole 
Sabellian  family  unite  in  this  connection.  The  Rhodian  Helius 
becomes  the  Latin  Sol,  and  the  Hebrew  Alvan  the  Latin  Silvanus, 
by  the  same  rule.     Silvanus,  the  enemy  of  children,  is  the  cruel  Ilus 

">  Vide  note  37.  Dora  was  probably  the  most  southern  of  the  Phoenician  towns.  Its  inhabi- 
tants wore  never  subdued.  Stephanua  of  Byzantium  calls  its  founder  Dorus,  son  of  Neptune. 
—Smith's  Dictionary  of  the  Bible. 

'»  Berosus,  Cory's  Ancient  Fragment*.    Galloway,  E.  R.,  W2. 


or  Cronus,  wlio  is  represented  as  sacrificing  his  son.  Tlie  Silones, 
named  after  him,  are  a  monkey  race,  once  more  reproducing  the 
Arab,  Indian  and  Lydian  stories,  Rhea  Silvia  or  Ilia  is  the  old  Rhea, 
wife  of  Ihis,  the  Pyrrha  that  married  Deucalion,  and  that  bears  both 
the  names  of  the  eldest  son  of  Shobal.  The  Etniscan  Mantus  is 
Manahath.  Apollo  and  Apulia  represent  Ebal.  Coelus  and 
Elysium  are  the  abode  of  Shobal,  the  great  Deev,  and  his  son  Alvan, 
or  Gilshah,  or  Caliya,  in  Elusa  or  Khulasa,  the  Cailasa  of  the  Hin- 
doos. Of  Coelus  and  Hecate,  a  strange  combination,  seeing  that 
they  are  the  names  of  father  and  son,  Janus  is  said  to  be  the 
offspring.  But  Janus,  the  fish-god,  is  Cannes  or  Onam,  a  prominent 
member  of  the  Horito  family.  The  line  of  Alba,  the  white  city,  is 
peculiarly  Horite.  In  it  we  find  Latinus,  who  is  Lotan.  Alba 
Sylvius  is  Alvan  himself,  twice  named  over.  His  son  Atys  is  Jahath, 
and,  strange  to  say,  is  also  called  Capetus,  while  his  son  is  Capys, 
thus  twice  reproducing  the  ^gyptus,  Kobad  or  Cheops,  whom  we 
have  found  to  be  Achumai.  Thus  plainly  did  the  old  story  of  a  far- 
off  and  bygone  civilization  live  in  the  memories  of  those  who  claimed 
as  their  ancestors  the  children  of  Seir,  the  Horite." 

Germans  and  Celts. — The  German  and  Scandinavian  mythologies 
have  few  points  of  connection  with  the  Horites.  Their  gods  and 
heroes  belong  pi-incipally  to  two  other  families,  those  of  Etam  and 
Ashchur.  The  red  Shethites  are  among  the  ancestor  of  these 
peoples.     Still  Ra  or  II  survives  in  the  god  Fi-ey  with  his  wife 

«  The  following  table  presents  the  names,  which, 

generally  In  genealogical  order,  recall  the 

prinnipal  family  of  the  line  of  Shobal : 



Alvan,  Allan. 
Roeh,  Reaiah. 






Ati  or  Fepi. 

Ahom,  Kames. 

Chtops,  jEgyptus. 


Elioun,  Ilus. 





U,  Ulvanus. 






Kai  Kobad., 



Cala,  KalyuuL 









Atys  or  Cotya. 













Atys  or 



Froya,  the  Egyptian  Phro,  and  as  II  in  the  annual  feast  which  was 
held  in  his  honour,  called  Yulo."  Ondurdis  also  is  the  E;j:yptian 
Ondorah  or  Denderah,  which  takes  its  name  from  the  god  and  first 
ruler  of  Halioiiolis.  Tlie  Celtic  divinity,  Ogmius,  with  his  Mercury 
and  Hercules  asaociations,  lias  been  frequently  identified  with  Ahoin, 
and  is  Achuinai.  The  Irish  O^oniuin,  son  of  Thoi,  must  be  the 
same,  Thoi  being  a  form  of  Jahath,  an  Achthoes  without  the  first 
syllable.  He  seems  to  }»o  represented  by  the  British  Beli,  who  is 
called  eiToneously  son  of  Manhogan  (Manachath),  and  correctly  the 
father  of  Llud  (Lihad).  Beli  may  be  the  name  of  Alvan  himself, 
given  to  Jachabh  when  accuL'ato  history  perished,  and  a  tendency 
arose  to  reduce  the  solar  divinities  to  unity. 

The  Ethiopian  deity  Assabiiius,  and  its  earliest  monarch  Arwe, 
may  be  Eshban  and  Haroeh.  Manachath  may  appear  not  only  in 
the  Chinese  Ming-ti  but  also  in  the  Peruvian  Manco-Guina-Capac 
and  the  Algonquin  Manitou.  It  would  be  strange  if  the  ancient 
people  of  China  and  the  tribes  of  this  continent  could  be  shown  to 
have  dwelt  within  the  influence  of  a  Horite  civilization.  The  unity 
and  recent  origin  of  the  human  race  would  be  at  once  established 
could  this  bo  done,  as  I  doubt  not  it  will  be  before  long.  In  the 
meantime,  the  various  traditions  of  civilized  peoples  have  carried  us 
back  to  the  days  of  Abraham  and  to  the  lands  in  which  he  sojourned — 
Palestine,  Egypt,  and  the  region  lying  between  ;  and  pointed  these 
out  as  the  time  and  the  place  when  and  where  man,  a  second  time 
beginning  to  fill  the  earth,  laid  the  foundations  of  his  present  pros- 
perity. The  facts  I  have  given,  through  the  connections  established 
between  the  Scripture  narrative  and  tradition,  are  a  besom  to  sweep 
into  the  waste-basket  of  literature  the  utterly  unfounded  hypotheses 
of  Bunsen  and  others,  which  throw  the  commencement  of  Egyptian 
history  thousands  of  years  into  the  past.  They  abolish,  I  trust  for 
ever,  that  absurd  class  of  interpreters  of  mythology,  who  make 
Euhemerus  a  continual  object  of  scorn,  and  pleasingly  imagine  a 
■world  sitting  down  in  its  various  divisions  to  weave  out  of  its  own 
brain  a  complex  and  unintelligible  solar  allegory.  They  say  to  the 
ethnologist,  the  student  of  language,  the  comparative  geographer,  the 
groper  towards  a  science  of  religions,  the  historian,  as  they  point  to 
the  eastern  life  of  nearly  four  thousand  years  ago — there  is  the  long- 
forgotten  field  in  which  your  studies  must  begin  if  they  are  to  be 

n  Malltt'i  Northern  Antiquities.    Bohn ;  110. 


successful.  And,  more  important  than  all,  they  tell  the  Gentile  of  a 
Divine  hand,  not  simply  leading  him  as  well  as  the  Jew  through  the 
early  period  of  the  world's  history,  but  placing  on  record,  briefly  as 
becomes  the  littleness  of  things  human  in  view  of  the  Divine,  yet 
comprehensively,  the  roll  of  his  forgotten  ancestry.  Spite  of  all 
questions  regarding  the  books  of  Chronicles,  the  Bible  still  proves 
itself  the  true  and  faithful  Word,  the  great  standax'd  of  historic  fact 
as  well  as  of  spiritual  truth  and  life.  I  am  fully  conscious  of  the 
importance  of  the  revolution  which  the  acceptance  of  the  truths  set 
forth  in  this  paper  will  cause  in  the  world  of  historical  science.  Of 
this,  however,  I  am  also  sure — 

"  Magna  est  Veritas  et  prsBTalebit."